THE EFFECTIVENESS AND USES OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION FOR DECISION MAKING IN PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANIZATION ( A CASE STUDY OF BANK OF AGRICULTURE)

THE EFFECTIVENESS AND USES OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION FOR DECISION MAKING IN PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANIZATION

( A CASE STUDY OF BANK OF AGRICULTURE)


NUMBERS PAGES: 95         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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        ABSTRACT
The need for effective financial decision making, guidance and direction to a profitable and solvent course often inform the choice and reliance on the accounting information. Source to accounting information includes suitably fashioned accounting system which can enable an organization to identify and gather accounting data, process them into accounting information for users. Decision making is a complex phenomenon and requires an appropriate platform. Thus, this paper reviews the role of accounting information in decision making of public sector x-raying areas of decision making where accounting techniques are kept in aberration thereby undermining the imperative of accounting information. This write-up concludes that accounting information is an indispensable tool in decision making and should be taken up seriously.

TABLE OF CONTENT:
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study
1.7 Conceptual and Operational Definition
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 ACADEMIC REVIEW
2.2 HISTORICAL REVIEW
2.3 DEFINITION OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION
2.4 USES AND USERS OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION
2.5 THE NATURE OF INFORMATION FOR ORGANIZATION EFFECTIVENESS
2.6 MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (MIS) IMPLICATION ON BANK PERFORMANCE
2.7 ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEM IN BANK OF AGRICULTURE
2.8 PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY BANK OF AGRICULTURE IN THE USE OF THEIR ACCOUNTING INFORMATION
2.9 SUMMARY OF REVIEWED LITERATURE

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research design
3.2 Areas of the study
3.3 Sample and sampling procedure
3.4 Instruments for data collection
3.5 Validation of the instruments
3.6 Reliability of the instruments
3.7 Methods of data collection
3.8 Method of data analysis
CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
4.1 Data Analysis
4.2 Results
4.3 Discussion
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 summary
5.2 Conclusions
5.3 Recommendations
Bibliography

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THE CONTRIBUTION OF CAPITAL MARKET TO THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY(APPRAISAL OF NIGERIAN CAPITAL MARKET)

THE CONTRIBUTION OF CAPITAL MARKET TO THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY

(APPRAISAL OF NIGERIAN CAPITAL MARKET)


NUMBERS PAGES: 60         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Before the introduction of money into the economy, buying and selling were done in terms of exchange of goods and services which is known as the barter economy. Savings then was in terms of real commodities and therefore had its shortcomings. Such shortcoming include the risk of damages to commodities being shored, coincidence of want, measurement problems etc.
With the introduction of money in one form or another, money has been playing and will continue to play a vital role in the process of economic growth and development.
It has been generally accepted that a developed financial system is always at the center in any economy and is the framework within which capital formation takes place.
This process is made possible by intermediation of financial institutions like banks and non-banking financial institutions.
The intermediation provides the efficient systems of mobilizing and allocating available resources for productive investment in the economy. The activities of this intermediation of financial institutions are carried out in the market known as financial market which is further divided into two, the money market and the capital market. The capital market is the long term end for financial market. Capital market is the subject matter of this project study.
The contribution of the capital market as a tool for development in the Nigerian economy was recognized and mentioned by Mr. Fisher in his report on the advisability on the establishment of Central Bank in Nigeria whe he wrote that: He could not imagine how a Central Bank could operate efficiently where money and capital markets do not exist or totally underdeveloped. To ensure that capital is efficiently allocated between competing ends and also to channel savings into investment for economic growth and development, it is important to develop a well conducted capital market within the financial framework.
The development of capital markets dates back to 1946 when the first government securities were floated. The first institutional facilities came into existence between 1959 and 1961 with the aim of proving funds for industries and governments to meet long –term capital requirements. Such as financing for fixed investments –building, plants, bridges etc to contribute to the Nation’s development.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Approval page ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgment iv
Proposal v
Table of contents vi

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
1.1 background of the study
1.2 Statement of the study the problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Scope and limitation of studies
1.5 Research questions
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Literature review
2.2 Types of capital market
2.3 Stock exchange market
2.4 Functions of Nigerian stock Exchange
2.5 Listing requirements of the Nigeria security exchange
2.6 Security and exchange commission
2.7 The second-tier security market
2.8 Recent trends in the capital market
2.9 The prospect for the future
2.10 Appraisal of Nigerian capital market
References

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction
3.1 Research population and sample
3.2 Research design and approach
3.3 Method of data collection
3.4 Administration of data analysis
3.5 Method of data analysis
3.6 Problems of methodology

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.2 Data presentation
4.2 Data analysis
4.3 Interpretation of data or discussion of finding

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
5.1 Summary of findings
5.2 Recommendations
5.3 Conclusion
Bibliography
Appendix

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THE IMPACT OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION ON LENDING DECISION OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN NIGERIA

THE IMPACT OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION ON LENDING DECISION OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN
NIGERIA


NUMBERS PAGES: 40         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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                   ABSTRACT
Most banks operating in Nigeria today are finding an
increasing number of loans in their portfolios that have gone
sour. The reasons for this undesirable situation vary as a
result of bad loan decision at inception, deterioration later on
or simply the effects of the economy. However, literature in the
field of accounting has shown that accounting information is
helpful in decision making not only in all spheres of business
but also at all levels of management. This study, therefore
investigates the impact of accounting information on lending
decision in Nigerian commercial banks. To this end, two
hypotheses were developed and tested at 5% level of
significance using the nonparametric chi-square test. Then
data used in the tests of the hypotheses were derived mostly
through the administration of structured questionnaire to the
25 commercial banks that fall within the sample frame. These
data supplemented by personal interviews with the
respondents, were used to support the analysis to arrive major
findings. Interviews with lending officers were held with a
view to: Seeking practical insight into lending in commercial
banks which only such interviews could provide: Gather
information for refining lending principles and techniques in an
effort to make them more applicable in commercial banks.
Examine current practices as an aid in judging the relevance of
accounting information that were thought to be applicable in
banking lending. Following a detailed analysis of the
responses to the questionnaire, the major findings of this study
are summarized as follows: Accounting information is a
necessary ingredient in bank lending decision. Accounting
ratios enriches the decision making ability of lending officers,
by providing them with pertinent information. The lending
policy of Nigeria commercial banks revolve around the
minimization of load defaults and the maximization of profit.
Finally, other important areas for further research were
suggested.
Recommendation; the researcher was of the view that if they
are implemented by Nigerian commercial banks their lending
decisions will improve significantly.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page = = = = = = = i
Certification = = = = = = = ii
Dedication = = = = = = = iii
Acknowledgement = = = = = = iv
Abstract = = = = = = = v
Table of Contents = = = = = = v
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study. 1
1.2 Statement of Problem 5
1.3 Research Question 6
1.4 Objectives of Study 7
1.5 Hypotheses of the Study 8
1.6 Scope of the Study 9
1.7 Limitation of the Study 9
1.8 Significance of the Study 10
1.9 Definition of Terms 11
References 13
CHAPTER TWO: A REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 A brief survey of the banking industry 14
2.2 Extension of credit and the basic principles of lending. 17
2.2.1 The basic principles of Lending 19
2.2.2 Character 24
2.2.3 Capacity 25
2.2.4 Capital 25
2.2.5 Collateral 26
2.6 Condition 26
2.3 Management Information System 27
2.3.1 Characteristics of good information system 27
2.3.2 Types of management information system 28
2.4 Management Accounting information System 29
2.4.1 Setting up a management Accounting System 30
2.5 The relevance of decision making to bank lending 31
2.5.1 Steps in lending decision 32
2.5.2 Accounting information and bank lending 35
2.5.3 A simple model of information and Lending
behaviour 37
2.6 Accounting system as a management
Information system 40
2.6.1 Characteristics of Accounting Information 42
2.7 An overview of Accounting ratios 44
2.7.1 Importance of Ratio Analysis 45
2.7.2 Classification of ratios 46
2.7.3 Interpretation of ratios 53
2.7. Weakness of ratio analysis 53
2.8 Lending pattern/Loan analysis 54
2.81 Summary 55
References 58
CHAPTER THREE: RE3EARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 59
3.2 Research design 59
3.3 Population description 60
3.4 Questionnaire design 61
3.5 Data collection 62
3.6 Method of Analysis 63
3.7 Summary 64
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Presentation 66.
4.2 Data analysis 66.
4.3 Test of hypothesis 83
4.3.1 Hypothesis one 83
4.4 Result for Testing of Hypotheses 84
4.5 Summary 87
CHAPTER FIVE:
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION
AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary of Findings 88
5.2 Recommendations 92
5.3 Conclusions 94
5.4 Recommendation for Further Studies 98

 

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THE IMPACT OF TAX EVASION ON REVENUE REGENERATION BY LAGOS STATE GOVERNMENT

THE IMPACT OF TAX EVASION ON REVENUE REGENERATION BY LAGOS STATE GOVERNMENT

(A CASE STUDY OF LAGOS STATE BOARD OF INTERNAL REVENUE)


NUMBERS PAGES: 68         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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                                                                        ABSTRACT

Tax evasion is the reduction of tax liabilities by not informing the revenue of all relevant facts. Tax evasion is an illegal means of reducing tax liability by making up false returns or by deliberate omission of some sources of income from the returns. This is a crime and therefore attracts penalty from the government.

The scope of study is strictly to Lagos State Board of Internal Revenue Service and its various tax stations. The scope of study was limited to Lagos State due to financial and time constraint. The state board of internal revenue and other related financial bodies were sampled and examined accordingly.
Relevant data were collected and analyzed using statistical data tools such as percentages and chi-square. The impact of tax evasion on revenue generation in Lagos State were analyzed and other variables relating to the field.

From this research, it was showed that tax evasion on the Lagos State economic can not be overemphasized. The revenue of government has been greatly affected. The current tax system being used gives room for loopholes, the current tax officials, the lack of adequate data and many more have worsened the situation.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGES
Title page i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Abstract v
Table of contents vi

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Historical background of the study 2
1.2 Statement of problem 4
1.3 Research questions 5
1.4 Research hypothesis 5
1.5 Objective of the study 6
1.6 Significance of the study 7
1.7 Scope and limitation of study 7
1.8 Definitions of terms 8

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature review on tax evasion 10
2.1 History of taxation in Nigeria 11
2.2 Introduction on taxation 15
2.3 Objectives of taxation 16
2.4 Fundamental effect of taxation 17
2.5 Ways to improve effective taxation 18
2.6 Classification of tax 19
2.7 Principles and legislations on taxation 21
2.8 Tax evasion 23
2.9 Causes of tax evasion 24
2.10 Some suggested solution to evasion problem 24
2.11 The seriousness of tax evasion 25
2.12 Methods of tax evasion 26
2.13 The contribution of the Lagos board on internal revenue
on tax evasion 28
2.14 Stop-go approach to taxation 29
2.15 Income chargeable of tax 30
2.16 Ravine of the existing tax policies and reform in Nigeria 31
2.17 Types of taxes that are collected in Lagos State 32
2.18 Lagos state government electronic banking system of revenue
cycle management (Lagos EBSRCM) 33
2.19 Tax clearance certificate 34
2.19.1 Objectives of electronics tax clearance certificate 35
2.19.2 Benefit of e-TCC to individual 35
2.20 Effects of people perceptions on the utilization of public
funds (tax) 36
References 37

CHAPTER THREE
Research Methodology
3.0 Introduction 39
3.1 Research design 39
3.2 Research approach 40
3.3 Population of study 40
3.4 Sources of data 40
3.4.1 Primary source data 41
3.4.2 Secondary source data 42
3.5 Sample sampling techniques 43
3.6 Instrument for data collection 43
3.7 Validity and reliability of instrument 43
3.8 Method of analysis 44

CHAPTER FOUR
Analysis and Interpretation of Data
4.0 Introduction 45
4.1 Analysis of data 45
4.2 Personal data 46
4.3 Testing of hypothesis 56
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Summary of findings, Conclusion and Recommendations 63
5.1 Summary 63
5.3 Conclusion 64
5.4 Recommendation 66

Bibliography
Questionnaire

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THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN ACCOUNTING SYSTEM ( A CASE STUDY OF UNILVER NIGERIA PLC LAGOS STATE)

THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN ACCOUNTING SYSTEM

( A CASE STUDY OF UNILVER NIGERIA PLC LAGOS STATE)


NUMBERS PAGES: 70         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Before now, business Success was built on the ability to move goods and services with speed and accuracy. Today, information has become the fuel that powers business Success .In contemporary Cooperate world, information technology is deployed to gain competitive edge.
Information technology has been defined as the processing and distribution of data using computer hard ware, software, telecommunication, and digital electronic (Encarta Encyclopedia: 2004).
Therefore it is now obvious that computer component of information technology can no longer stand alone without the combination of other component. However, management planning and control responsibilities are also par amount to a successful enterprise and they represent a mandatory of an Organization to progress and survive in today highly unpredictable and competitive business environment. The projected plan of operation must be decisive and dynamic timely, intelligent planning must be predicated on current known fact and a thorough analysis and realistic approach to inevitable Feature probabilities .These key requirement for planning directions will lead to Business probability and an equitable return on investment, which are the objective of a successful management.
The techniques and mechanical tools required to accomplish the development of planning and control objective are now available, but in many instances, appropriate management organization, interest and progression in fully acknowledging their utilizations unfortunately lacking. This is a dilemma that must be overcome.
In addition, management control system must not be overlooked. It comprises; the plan of an organization and all of the Coordinates methods and measures adopted within a business safeguard its assets check the accuracy and reliability of its accounting data, promote operational efficiency and encourage adherence to prescribe managerial policy.
In other word, it could be regarded as whole system of control, financial and otherwise, establishment by the management in order to carry on the business of the company or organization in an orderly manner, safeguard its assets and secure as far as possible measures. The accuracy and reliability of its record for planning measurements for performance and control purpose .
Information technology is the technology used for study, understanding planning, design, construction, testing, distribution, support and operation of software, computers and computer related system that exist for the purpose of data, information and knowledge processing.
Another definition of the information technology (IT)is the industry has evolved include the study science solution set for all aspect of data, information and knowledge management, processing.

THE COMPANY UNDERSTUDY
Unilever (formerly known as lever brother) Nigeria plc (Rc113) is the largest surviving manufacturing outfit in Nutria. The company in cooperated as a private company in 1923 (as lever brothers Nigeria plc) to manufacture soaps based on local palm oil. The company Strengthen it foot hold in the food and drink business by merging with Lipton Nigeria limited in July (1985) and also merged with chase brought products industry in December (1988) to become a giant in personal product business.
In accordance with Nigeria enterprises promotion degree of 1972and 1977, 40% of the company equity is held by Nigeria citizens and institution, while the remaining 60% is held by Unilever overseas holding limited , Lipton tea company limited and chase borough product international limited.
Today Unilever Nigeria plc is a leading company in the industrial sector, engages in the manufacturing achere and marketing of wild range of household product.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

Management will often worry about the cost(financial and social) of putting computer based system for processing accounting data and generating accounting information. incident of computer fraud. Problems that may be associated with real time online operations. Errors of input (garbage in garbage out) (GIGO) Problems of system errors. Problems that may be associated with the applications of computer based audit procedures.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Sequel to the problems highlighted above, the main objective of this research study is to determine whether information technology improves management effectiveness by affecting business strategies. The research study were identified as follows: To ascertain whether or not accountant efficiency contributes to organizational growth with the information technology deployed. Determine whether information technology improves management effectiveness by satisfying information needs or not. Prove that information technology improves competiveness by affecting business.
Determine the organization experience with the effect of information technology on accounting process. Access the role of training in charge management and justification as measured from the accounting perspective. Ascertain whether information technology improves business efficiency by automating basic information needs or not. To emphases on the current development of information technology and the challenges such pose to accountants in an organization.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
In any question to carry out this study towards finding out true position of accountants efficiency in conversant with the information technology deployed by an organization as an input to the business success. It is very important to delve into the following research question.
1. Is introduction of information technology in Unilever Nigeria plc improving accountant‟s performance?
2. How does information technology in Unilever Nigeria plc affect the profitability in financial reporting?
3. Does the organization embark on training the accountant in other to accommodate the change?
4. What are the peculiar problems faced by Unilever Nigeria plc in implementing information gathered from its information technology.

1.5 HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
With respect to the statement of the study, the hypothesis below can be deducted.
H0: there is no relationship between the introduction of information
technology and the efficiency of the accountants on Unilever nigeria plc.
H1: there is relationship between the introduction of information technology
and the efficiency of the accountants on Unilever Nigeria plc.
H0: The Impact of Information Technology

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research study is primarily meant for accountants and multinational companies. Then the continent, will guide the organization manufacturing sector with large scale production of different home use product and how accountants can cope with current development in information technology and the importance in organization.
The research study is also significant to manager and the authorized personnel (accountant or IT professionals) to have the knowledge that the main threats to information technology in an organization are human beings.
Information technology facilities can be manipulated to commit fraud.etc. The human threats to information technology includes insiders, hackers and phone freaks etc. the detailed operating plan involves the manipulation of a mass data in other to support a valid plan that will fulfill the requirements of managements appraisal task to determine operational directions, make resolutions decisions and assures adequate performance measurement criteria in light of the information system utilization.
Hence managers and accountants would be better equipped to handle various related problems.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
In the course of this research works, the researcher encountered some restriction which militates against the smooth execution of his work among these issues are : Unilever is a multinational companies with several subsidiaries under it which had incapacitated the researcher of getting some of their transactional data for the research methodology due to the secretiveness of the sampled population. The problem of retrieval of research instrument administered, finance, combining my official work which makes it always difficult for me to go out always not to do anything personal. Other limitation include time constraint, cost of carrying out research work and unsupportive nature of respondents.

1.8LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
In this study the impact of information technology on accounting system, the research is limited by time. Though this research ought to be very broad and all embracing the research is limited by time to go that far and treat this exhaustively. The study was also limited by secrecy of information in the company, which requires permission of the company higher authority hence most information was regarded as classified information. Despite these limitations, the project work will be useful to any person that wants to know about the impact of information technology on accounting system. This research though is expected to be very broad and all embracing, it is limited to the impact of information technology on accounting system and this is due to the fact that this is the researcher main concern at the moment.

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THE EFFECT OF STOCK MARKET ON THE SURVIVAL OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE ENTERPRISE (SMES) IN NIGERIA

THE EFFECT OF STOCK MARKET ON THE SURVIVAL OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE ENTERPRISE (SMES) IN NIGERIA


NUMBERS PAGES: 85         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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  • INTRODUCTION

The study shall attempt to examine the effect of stock market on the survival of Small and Medium scale enterprise (SMEs) in Nigeria. The stock is one of the most important sources for companies to raise money. This allows businesses to be publicly-traded or raise additional capital for expansion by selling shares of the ownership of the company in a public market. The liquidity that an exchange affords the investors give them the ability quickly and easily sell securities. This is an attractive feature of investing a stock, compare to other less liquid investments. Some companies are actively increase liquidity by trading in their own shares.

1.2      BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

History has shown that the price of shares and other assets, is an important part of the dynamics of economic activities, and can influence or be an indicator of social mood. An economy where the stock market is on the rise is considered to be an up-and-coming economy likewise, productive project may remain redundant where absence of an efficient set of financial institution exists. In fact, the stock market is often considered the primary indicator of a country’s economic strength and development.

Any modern economy is made of a number of economic units and agents namely individuals, households, corporate bodies and the government, each of which requires financial facilities (money and credit) to carry on its economic activities. It is however, impossible for any of these units to always provide all the funds required for its economic activities hence may have cause to borrow.

Generally, income earned is partly spent on consumption and partly saved. The portion is then channeled into investment through a verity of financial machineries (institutions and markets.)

By definition, a financial system is considered as the collection of markets, individuals and institutions regulations and techniques which facilitate the flow of scarce loan-able funds in the form of credit from savers to borrowers for consumption and investment purpose. It is the grouping of all financial agents whose transactions determine as well as the aggregation of all financial arrangement, institutions agents and mechanism by which they relate to each other with the financial sector and globally, financial system is considered as one of the most important inventions of modern industrial societies.

Financial system however, varies in the level of developing economics including Nigeria is therefore to have in place a highly developed financial system which is the hallmark of modern business enterprise economy.

However, production of goods and services in the most efficient manner has continued to be the only viable and reliable option for growth development, it is impossible for a sustained high productive level to be attained without a well-developed industrial sector. Industries normally operate either in a large or small scale both in the public and private sector. In Nigeria, the private sector enterprises cover a wide range of different types of industries as distinguished by various criteria such as size, sector, ownership structure, employment and technology.

The small and medium Enterprises Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN), (2011) classify industries into micro, small and medium Enterprises (MSMEs). The significances of MSMEs to growth, productivity and competitiveness of the economies of developing countries is universally recognized. MSMEs are generally acknowledged in (Kasekende and opondo 2003) as the bedrock of the industrial development and world economies. They are more innovative than larger firms are. MSMEs development can play a key role in entrepreneurs’ development through their contributions to economic advancement and social empowerment.

1.3      STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

           It is relatively scarce to find any study which integrates financial institution and capital market and which also indicate the relevance of these institutions and markets to economy in general.

Promoters of small and medium industries are people with ideas, dream and imaginations but majority of these entrepreneurs lack needed financial means to translate their dreams and aspiration into concrete material to create value/services that will earn them the desired wealth.

Lack of management and financial accounting practices in small and medium scale industries leads to poor formulation and execution of policies in sub-sector. This is because many industries that fall into these categories do not keep proper accounts of transactions. As a result, many small and medium enterprises find it difficult to obtain loan from financial institution who demands for their past financial statement business plans and feasibility studies.

A financial market is also made up of series of arrangements, institutions, and facilities and process that facilities the exchange of fund (government, corporate bodies and individuals). The duration of the lending/borrowing arrangement and the nature of the instrument/product used, determines the classification of a financial transaction as either a money market or capital market activity, for an industry to go for a long term finances, such company has to have what it takes before the loan can be given out. e.g. building or land that actually belong to the establishment.

Small and medium scale industries generally have limited access to long term capital even their access to short term financing is limited and sometime attained at a penal rate interest and other conditionality. The worst of this is the banking sector tends to be lukewarm in meeting the credit requirement of the inadequate collateral, including the inability to raise the required equity contribution by MSMEs.

This study shall attempt to investigate how effective the stock market is on the survival of small and medium scale enterprises in Nigeria.

1.4      OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The general objective of this study is to determine the effect of stock market on the survival of small and medium scale enterprises in Nigeria. While, the specific objectives are to:

  1. Determine the positive impact of stock market to the growth of SMEs.
  2. Evaluate the problems and prospects of the stock market towards SMEs.

iii. Appraise the contribution of capital market to the raising of funds by SMEs.

1.5      RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The study aims at addressing such questions as:

  1. How far has the Nigeria capital market been able to properly harness its saving for internally generated growth?
  2. How efficient is the capital market in terms of lowering cost of raising funds?

iii. What is the average level of participation by the rural communities in the Nigeria capital markets?

  1. How accessible is the Nigerian capital market to the international community?

1.6      STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

For this study to be properly guided, the following hypothesis are formulated

H0 Null Hypothesis (HO): stock market has no significant impact on the survival of small and medium scale enterprises in Nigeria.

Hi Alternative Hypothesis (HI): stock market has significant impact on the survival of small and medium scale enterprises in Nigeria.

H0: Null Hypothesis (H0): Nigeria capital market is not a good source of long term capital for SMEs

Hi: Alternative Hypothesis (Hi): Nigeria capital market is a good source of long term capital for SMEs.

1.7      SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

A capital market is not a known and easily identifiable market on which commodities are traded. Rather, it is a market for intangible commodities of both medium and long term nature. The markets and its potentials are therefore not widely understood and appreciate by the majority of Nigeria populace not even some of the elite.

It would also assist the general public to know the positive impact of the Nigeria stock exchange towards the development of the nation economy.

1.8      JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

The researcher is interested in this study to help future researchers to have more knowledge on the impact of stock exchange market in small and medium scale enterprise and to reveal how small and medium scale enterprises are being financed.

1.9      SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The research will look into the proper framework of stock enterprise benefits. The researcher appraised what is required to examine the positive contributions of Nigerian stock market in financing the nation’s economic development with a view of recommending ways for consolidation.

 

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THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF INVENTORIES (DRUGS) IN GOVERNMENT HEALTH INSTITUTIONS (UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA TEACHING HOSPITAL (UNTH) IN ENUGU)

THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF INVENTORIES (DRUGS) IN GOVERNMENT HEALTH INSTITUTIONS

(UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA TEACHING HOSPITAL (UNTH) IN ENUGU)


NUMBERS PAGES: 80         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Inventories occupy the most strategic position in structure of working capital of most business enterprises. It constitutes the largest component of current asset in most business enterprises. In the sphere of working capital, the efficient control and management of inventory has paired the most serious problem to the health institutions. The turnover of working capital is largely governed by the turnover of inventory, that is the rate of working capital is largely governed by the amount of inventory which is largely provided by the government. It is therefore quite natural that inventory which helps to maximize profit occupies the most significant place among current and profit assets.
The American usage of the word ‘inventory’ is synonymous with the British use of the word ‘stock’, this synonym is evident in the definitions of inventory and stock by the Oxford Dictionary. The Oxford English Dictionary defined inventory as follows:
1. A list, catalogue, detailed account
2. A lot or stock of goods, etc which are or may be made the subject of an inventory.
3. The aggregate of goods and some specified kind of goods which a trader has on hand as provision for the possible future requirement of customers.
The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) defined inventory thus, the term inventory in used to designate the aggregate of those terms tangible personal property which are held for sale in the ordinary course of business, in the process of production for such sale or currently consumed in the production of goods and services to be available for sale.
According to the Nigerian Accounting Standard Boards (NASB) stock includes those finished goods and livestock waiting sale, work-in-program, raw materials and supplies to be consumed in the production of goods and rendering of services.
Many understand the word inventory as a stock of goods, but the generally accepted meaning of the word ‘goods’ in the accounting language is the stock of finished goods only. In a manufacturing organization, however, in addition to the stock of finished goods, there will be stock of partly finished goods; there will be stock of partly finished goods, raw materials and stores. The collective name of these entire items is ‘inventory’.
Inventory management is aimed at maintaining a minimum investment in operations to maximize profitable operations. To maintain a large stock of investment to ensure a smooth and efficient operation of the firm.
The effect of inventory management on government health institutions like UNTH Enugu cannot be over emphasized; this is because asset of many institutions represents considerable percentage of the total invested capital. The control, accounting and management of an efficient inventory management system is of a special interest to both management, suppliers and other users of accounting information.
Therefore, poor inventory management leads to expiration of drugs, loss of quality sequel to poor storage system with resultant reduction in efficacy of the drug. This might even lead to death of some patients. There may be stock out and lot more effect of poor inventory control and management.
Inventory control is concerned with the acquisition, control, handling and use of inventories so as to ensure the availability of inventory whenever needed, providing adequate provision for contingencies, deriving maximum economy and minimizing wastages and losses.
Hence, inventory control refers to a system, which ensures the supply of required quantity and quality of inventory at the required time. Inventory control can make or break a company. This explains the usual saying that inventories are the grave yard of business.
The aim of a sound inventory control system is to ensure the best balance between two much and too little. Too much inventory carries financial rises and too little reacts adversely on continuity of sequence.
In health institutions such as UNTH Enugu, inventory control is more than just procurement and usage. The proper controls and processes can save millions in health care cost by enabling health institutions to efficiently order and store just the right amount of supplies needed for patient care while tackling cost, tier pricing and patient charges associated with supplies.
Inventory management and control helps facilities identify, control and manage their inventories by keeping accurate records of all inflow, outflow and movement of inventory (drugs) in a user friendly environment. The proper tracking data allows for accuracy in patient charges and on audit trail to identify cist charges.
The intention of this research work therefore aimed at studying the management and control of inventories (drugs) in government health institutions with special reference to University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
A large proportion of the government health institutions are faced with similar problems. These problems hinder the growth and development of institutions in this country. The problems include
1. Unsatisfied clients/patients arising from poor qualify drugs.
2. High rate of obsolescence, wastages and theft of drugs.
3. Poor quality of inventory control leading to out of stock of essential drugs in the hospital.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To ensure an effective and efficient management and control of inventory (drugs) in government health institution leading to effective service delivery.
2. To reduce obsolescence and wastages of drugs.
3. To reduce out of stock syndrome prevalent in government hospitals.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. To what extent has effective management and control of inventory aid in effective and efficient service delivery of hospitals?
2. How far do effective inventory management reduce obsolescence and wastages of drugs experienced in hospitals?
3. To what extent do good inventory management help in reducing out of stock syndrome prevalent in government hospitals?
1.5 FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESES
Ho: proper management and control of inventory does not have a significant effect on effective and efficient service delivery of hospitals.
Hi: Proper management and control of inventory has a significant effect on effective and efficient service delivery on hospitals.
Ho: Proper management and control of inventory does not reduce obsolescence and wastages experienced in hospitals.
Hi: Proper management and control of inventory reduce obsolescence and wastages experienced in hospitals.
Ho: There is no relationship between inventory control and stock out experienced n hospitals.
Hi: There is relationship between inventory control and stock out experienced n hospitals.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of the study is mainly attributed to the need for measuring result of inventory operations for a particular period such as month of year. This study will point out the importance of inventory control and management in government health institutions.
This study will also create an opportunity for existing and prospective employers and employees to benefit from the use of modern inventory control and management techniques that will be recommended. To students, it will improve their theoretical and practical knowledge of inventory management and control in government health institutions.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The management and control of inventories cover physical control, accounting control and management policies and procedures relating to inventory. This study is based on government health institutions but due to time, the school system and financial constraints, this research has selected a sample from eth population of health instructions.
The study sample selected for this study is University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) in Enugu, and the study shall cover their ordering method, procurement method, storage and issue of drugs including the cold chain system and the inventory management and control techniques that aid in the achievement of the organizational goal.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The absence of any previous empirical study on the management and control of inventories drugs in the program of UNTH is a significant limitation to this study.
These absences of an existing body of study on this area in the institution posses a special problem of the absence of previous reference or primary data from the scratch through questionnaire administration and designed to supplement available secondary data. However, financial constraints are expected to present a very serious limitation to the study since it would limit the researcher’s data material and the presentation of existing evidence.
1.9 DEFINITION OF OPERATIONAL TERMS
Inventory – Stock of materials or product. In this, inventory refers to drugs.
Inventory Management – The official system designed by the management of a company to monitor control and manage the stock of inventories and assets under its possession.
Inventory Control – Supervision of the supply and storage and accessibility of items in order to incur on adequate supply without excessive supply.
Cold Chain System – A popular term for continuous maintenance of low temperature required for biological example vaccines from the time of manufacture to shipping, warehouse and storing before administration.

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EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNAL AUDIT AS A PANACEA TO EFFICIENT LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION AND FRAUD CONTROL, (A STUDY OF SELECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS IN IMO STATE)

EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNAL AUDIT AS A PANACEA TO EFFICIENT LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION AND FRAUD CONTROL

(A STUDY OF SELECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS IN IMO STATE)


NUMBERS PAGES: 70         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

Globally the role of auditing is being appreciated for its avowed operations and activities. Ihe and Umeaka(2006:370) defined auditing “as a process carried out by suitably qualified auditors during which the accounting records and the financial statements of an organization are subjected to examination by an independent auditor with the main objective of expressing an opinion in accordance with the relevant terms of appointmentpurpose” they also noted that the objectives of auditing were grouped into two
a. Primary objective: the auditor (one who carries out audit operation) is to report whether the financial statements shows a „true and fair view‟ of the financial affairs of the organization during the period under review and s end date.
b. Secondary objective: This concerns the detection of frauds and errors and the prevention of frauds and errors
The crux of this research work however is based on internal Audit – which is a very important aspect of auditing, how the internal audit unit of the government can be made effective in order to assist in the efficient administration of local Government Areas (LGA). Internal Audit as defined by Chukwu L. C. (2011: 28) is “an independent appraisal of activity within the organization for the service of accounting, financial and other business practice as a protective and constructive aim of management”. He further opined that, internal audit is a type of control which functions by measuring and evaluating the effectiveness of other types of control. Anosike. C. K (2009:29) noted that the primary objective of internal audit, is to promote utmost efficiency and security in conducting business, in our case, the business or operations of the Local government areas. Azubike (2005:83) enumerated the features of internal audit as follows:
a. Independence: it is carried out by independent personnel through appointed by the management.
b. Appraisal Function: it appraises the activities of other. Example, reviewing the system of checking employee expense claims.
c. Management Service: Plans and controls work according to management policies, so that information used by the management is complete and reliable.
d. It is carried out skillfully and with due care.
e. The Findings, conclusions and recommendations are communicated promptly and efficiently.
He also noted that internal audit seeks for effectiveness, economic and efficiency. Effectiveness here: means achieving the program objective or goals. Economy means operating at the lowest possible cost. Efficiency implies effectiveness in outputs, avoidance of accessory waste of resources.

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EFFECT OF PUBLISHED FINANCIAL STATEMENT ON SHAREHOLDERS INVESTMENT DECISION (A STUDY OF GUINNESS NIGERIA BREWERIES LAGOS)

EFFECT OF PUBLISHED FINANCIAL STATEMENT ON SHAREHOLDERS INVESTMENT DECISION

(A STUDY OF GUINNESS NIGERIA BREWERIES LAGOS)


NUMBERS PAGES: 70         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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1.0 INTRODUCTION
Each person like every business requires some measures of both financial position and financial performance in assessing his financial conditions. The financial position depicts one’s wealth at ascertain point in time while one’s financial performance describes once.
Financial statements according to Illoumezie (2006:33) are like compasses “which navigators use to locate their bearing and find direction”. People use them to gauge their financial positions at various points in their lives in order to judge their progress towards their financial goals.
Financial statements according to meigs and meigs (1981:28) refers to reports which summarize the financial position and operating results of a business (balance sheet and income statements). It referred to as genera purpose that satisfy the need of many groups generally called stakeholders. These groups are particularly concerned with the risk inherent in and returns provided by their investments, and who require accounting information to enable their assess the ability whether they should buy, hold and sell their investments.
According to Anayaogu (2002:14) financial accounting provides information to eternal decision makes such as shareholders government, creditors, employees etc, these are people with whom or from whom money is ultimately paid or received. Anayaogu (2002:20) also states that records of financial accounting includes various ledges accounts, profits and loss accounts, balance sheet and other financial records. These records are intended to show the strength, progress, portability, management effectiveness and stewardship.
Financial statement are the means of communicating to interested partners information or the resource, obligation and performance of the reporting enterprise in a simple, clear and understandable form to all its user with such attributer of relevance to decision reliability, consistency and comparability materiality efficiency and understandability.
According to information provides continuity in history as quality in monetary terms of economic activities resources and obligations of a business enterprises as well as the various activity that cause a change in the level of these resources and obligation. It is also serves as parameter for evaluating the performance of a business enterprise and as a measuring tool to both the management and decision markers and possible sale of shares by shareholder when actual results deviate from the target objectives. The importance attached to accounting information cannot only be related to management and the government but it also cuts across the cars of the various categories of creditors, employee, and other water cooperate bodies and potentials investors as well.
The annual report and accounts are said to be published owing to the fact. It is being printed and dispatched to each shareholder and any other unfrosted where person on request. The annual reports and accounts are the primary means of communicating vital economi c information in the cooperation’sresources and obligation to absentee owners and could be investor by the management. The published financial statement serve as a means of conveying business information to the equity investor groups (shareholders), the loans creditors group, the employee groups, the business contract group, the government and its agencies as well as the general public. It gives a concise and genuine picture of an enterprise profitability trend and its financial position. The information contained in the published financial statement act as a basis for which shareholder maker investment decisions.

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CREDIT FINANCE AS ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF CAPITAL IN SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES WITH PREFERENCE TO POLY IBADAN PURE WATER FACTORY.

CREDIT FINANCE AS ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF CAPITAL IN SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES WITH PREFERENCE TO POLY IBADAN PURE WATER FACTORY.


NUMBERS PAGES: 60         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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                                                                                  ABSTRACT
Small scale industry is one of the factors aiding the diversification of the industry structure development. This study examines credit finance as alternative sources of capital in small scale industries with preference to Polyibadan Pure Water Factory, The Polytechnic, Ibadan.
This research work discusses at length the definition and meaning of finance and small scale industries. The study population was from the entire member of staffs of Polyibadan Pure Water, The Polytechnic, Ibadan; both primary sources of data were from questionnaire and interviews. On the other hand, the secondary sources of data were from textbooks, journals and publications.
The descriptive method of data analysis was used in the research work and hypothesis formulated were tested using simple percentage techniques.
In this research work, a table of preference and necessity is drawn out to show that finance is a tool in aiding small scale enterprise and it can be substitute where there is no capital.
From the findings, the research hypothesis concludes that a small scale industry depends on finances as an alternative source of capital, because where there is no finance as an alternative, the business cease to exist.
Key Words: finance, small scale industry, loan, financial institutions, capital and entrepreneur.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CONTENT PAGE
Title page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgment
Abstract
Table of contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Purpose of the study
1.4 Research questions
1.5 Significant of the study
1.6 Scope of the study
1.7 Definition of study
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Theoretical framework
2.2 Classification of small scale industries
2.3 Concept analysis of small scale industries
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research design
3.2 The samples population
3.3 Sampling procedure
3.4 Data collection
3.5 Method of data analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Data analysis and result
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary of finding
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation
Bibliography
Appendix

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