A REPORT ON URBAN DESIGN (A CASE STUDY OF PART OF LOKOJA METROPOLIS I.E. NEW LAYOUT, COMMENTARY, CINIMAL, HOLY TRINITY, BAPTIST CHURCH AND ALHARI LOKOJA KOGI STATE)

A REPORT ON URBAN DESIGN (A CASE STUDY OF PART OF LOKOJA METROPOLIS I.E. NEW LAYOUT, COMMENTARY, CINIMAL, HOLY TRINITY, BAPTIST CHURCH AND ALHARI LOKOJA KOGI STATE)


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CHAPTER ONE

URBAN DESIGN

1.0    INTRODUCTION

Urban design is a collaborator and multidisciplinary process of shaping the physical environment for life in cities, towns that is in urban areas.

According to “Peter Buchana” urban design is about how to recapture certain of the qualities that we associate with the traditional city, a sense of order, place, continuity, richness of experience completeness and belonging urban design lies somewhere between the broad-brush abstractions of planning and the concrete and the concrete specifics of architecture.

Urban design is concerned with analyzing, organizing and shaping urban form so as to elaborate as richly as coherently as possible they lived experience of the inhabitants. It is the process of designing and shaping cities and towns it deals with the larger scale of groups of buildings, street and public spaces, whole neigboourhood and district and entire cities with the goal of making urban areas functional, attractive and sustainable.

This theory deals primarily with the design and management of public space i.e. the public environment, public realm or public domain, and the way public spaces are experienced and used. Public spaces include the totality of spaces used freely by a day to day basis by the general public, such as streets, plazas, park and public infrastructure. Some aspects of privately owned spaces, such as building facades or domestic gardens, also contribute to public space and are therefore also considered by urban design theory.

1.1. FIELD OBSERVATION

This involves physical and direct examination of physical and existing situation of the study area.

  1. Rekey survey:- This is also known as recognizance survey. The rekey survey was carried out to check features such as the area covered, land form major boundary e.t.c
  2. Taping:- Involve line and direct measurement of the existing structures as well as to determine the total land mass or area. From observation and practical confirmation, the study area has a total land area of about 442500m2 (metre square) and 44.25 hecter respectively.
  3. Site analysis:- The sun rise from the Eastand set at West as usually water run off from West North to the South East of the study area. Morning wind direction is to North-West afternoon wind direction to North while evening wind direction to East. We have or observes four (4) well water half functioned. While on circulation, the Angera tile area has planned circulating but others are not planned to standard.
  4. Demolition:- This involve the pulling and falling down of building/structures as well as tree and created signpost during the cause of upgrading the quality and standard of facilities in the study area, 51 houses were touched or demolish for proper implementation of the new proposal aside trees and others.
  5. Circulation:- About 75% of the existing roads are from to accident due to unusual curves and bends and undefined junction. Also some of the roads terminate to or at the middle of residents. Still on circulation, part of the liberty hotel street has not been tauded up till nor due to political bus during the administration of Alh, Ibrahim Idris as a prominent member of the street withdraw this support from his political affairs.
  6. Physical condition of buildings:- Generally, the condition of buildings in the study area is fear with just few standard houses such as school. There is a duple building behind or at back of international hotel off Hassan Otokiti close collapsing beyond repair, proper attention must be given to this situation to ensure safety of life of residents within the area.
  7. Site platting:- The platting of the study area is may in the same shape some play are bigger than others while others are in irregular shape given some part of the study area difficulty for circulation and open space.
  8. Government baise:- In the study area we discoved that the government upgraded some part of the accessibility while they left others because of political issue.

1.2    THE STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

  1. Poor and inadequate drainage facilities
  2. Inadequate water supply
  3. Poor electric supply
  4. Poor hosing condition
  5. Improper refuse waste disposal
  6. Poor circulation

1.3    THE AIM AND OBJECTIVE

THE AIM

The aim of this work is to make necessary provisions and improvements on infrastructure in order too improve on their standard of living.

THE OBJECTIVES

  1. To make provisions for adequate drainage facilities
  2. To provide for adequate water supply
  3. Making provisions for proper refuse disposal to ensure a good housing condition
  4. To improve on the standard of circulation

1.4    SCOPE AND LIMITATION

The work some part of Lokoja metropolis i.e. new layout, cemetery, cinema, holy trinity, Baptist, Alheri. And the issues of the problems faced in that area are discussed and how the problem can be solved.

1.5    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study will help to access the quality of the existing facilities of the area. And also the problems facing there, and the factor responsible for it. While help create a better living environment.

1.6    STUDY AREA

The study area has mixed occupation, some are self-employed while others are civil servant. The area is mainly for residential and few public and commercial land use.

1.7    LOCATION

The study area (part of Lokoja metropolis) is located at latitude 70 48’0”N and longitude 6044’0”E. it is among the first settlement found in Lokoja. It is in this area that one can find the government house and also the G.R.A of kogi state as a whole, the area is know to be a centre of different commercial activities in Lokoja metropolis.

1.8    CLIMATE AND RAINFALL

The study are lies in the middle but Zone. It has a average rainfall of 1300mm-1800mm and temperature of about 350c to 400c.

28 – 380c

1.9    VEGETATION

It falls within the Sudan savannah but of the vegetation of Nigeria. It is found north of decides forest Zone. The grasses found in this but are usually very short and tall, hence they receive up to 1000mm of rainfall annually and the duration not less than 4-5 month (April-September).

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

The people that first build house in that area were Hassan Okiti and Idamodu Muhammed (a.k.a. Bawahala) before others started to develop. The settlement is a part of Lokoja metropolis and it emerged as a result of the relocation of the Tiv people. The relocation happened due to the need for the NEPA officials to find an office.

The first Christian worship centre in the united evangelical church (UEC).

The name “new layout” is used because the place was a former proposed G.R.A.

Thus, both state and local government allocated plots of land for people.

There is no general culture due to difference in ethnicity. The ethnic group includes Yourba, Ebira, Kakanda, Nupe, Koto, Bassa, Tir, Igala, Igbos

chapter one. Chapter two relate to literature review and theoretical framework concerning urbanization and its challenges. The research method is outlined in chapter three while the responses from the questionnaire respondents were presented and discussed in chapter four. Concluding comments in chapter five reflects on summary, conclusion and recommendations.

 

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CAUSES OF BUILDING COLLAPSE AND ITS PREVENTION (A CASE STUDY OF OWORO HOUSING ESTATE KOGI STATE)

CAUSES OF BUILDING COLLAPSE AND ITS PREVENTION
(A CASE STUDY OF OWORO HOUSING ESTATE KOGI STATE)


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                                                                             ABSTRACT
Many recent collapse of building occurred both during construction and following occupancy. Such failures have received professional and public attention due to the major losses of life and property. Five recommendations resulting from the Engineering Foundations Conference “Building Structural Failures – their cause and prevention”. The recommendations addresses structural integrity, life safety insurance, peer review, definition and assignment of responsibility, and unified risk insurance. The nature and magnitude of the problem, the design process, the construction process, legal implications and the regulatory process are covered.
On this fact, This research was fashion on how to prevent and deal with collapse causes in building. The method used in sourcing the material used for the collection of data was orally interview with 30 professionals in the research field, e.g. builders, architects, quantity surveyor, structural engineers etc. the answers received was presented and analyzed using statistical demographical tools. This research concludes that, foundation failure and faulty design among others are major causes of collapse in building. The research recommend that thorough inspection of sites should be done by professionals, before, during and after construction. client should engage professional and avoid quacks, Government on its own part should enforce policy on construction activity in the study area.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _i
Approval Page _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ii
Dedication_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ iii
Acknowledgement_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _iv
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1
1.1 background of the study_ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ 7
Aim and Objectives_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7
1.4 Aims of the Research_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7
1.4.1 Objectives of the Research _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7
1.5 Scope and limitation_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8
1.5.1 Scope_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8
1.5.2 Limitation_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8
1.6 Methodology_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8
1.6.1 Literature review_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8
1.6.2 Research design_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8
1.6.3 Data analysis_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 9
2.1 the complexity of the building_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 14
2.2 effect of building collapse in Nigeria_ _ _ _ _ _ 15
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 research methodology
3.1 research design_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 16
3.2 Fields Survey_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 22
3.3 Population of the Study_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 22
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 22
3.5 Method of data Analysis_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 23

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Data Presentation and Discussion_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 24
4.1 Data Presentation _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 24
4.2 Data Analysis _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 24

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 27
5.1 Conclusion _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 27
5.2 Recommendation _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 28
Reference

 

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THE EFFECTS OF GENERAL ECONOMY AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON HOUSING (A CASE STUDY OF LOKOJA KOGI STATE)

THE EFFECTS OF GENERAL ECONOMY AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON HOUSING
(A CASE STUDY OF LOKOJA KOGI STATE)


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                                                                           ABSTRACT
This research was carried out to examine how government policies and the economy of the nation are affecting organizations and individuals towards owning their own house(s) using Lokoja as a case study.
The researcher’s information relied on data collected through questionnaire, (50 questionnaires were issued out and 40 was received back), oral interview followed by note taking. Our findings show that the economy of Kogi state and the state government policies affect the citizens.
Based on this result, conclusion was drawn that general economics and government policies have crucial and negative effect on building constructions as it holds back majority of having a place to call their home. The result obtained from our research proved that everyone can own a building if government reduces the effect of economics and their policies on building constructions. The following recommendations were made that Kogi State government should look into how their policies and economics are having effects on building constructions such as tax, cost of transportation, bad roads, cost of building materials, price of fuel used in transporting building material and plants and so on. Also teams should be assign to ensure all this are put in place and strictly observed, it is expected of government to reduce economical and governmental policies that are affecting building construction so as to make it easier for everyone to own a home.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – i
Approval Page – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – iv

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Need of Study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3
1.2 Justification of the Study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3
1.3 Aim and Objectives – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3
1.4 Aims of the Research – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3
1.4.1 Objectives of the Research – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 4
1.5 Scope and limitation – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 4

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 5
2.1 Sequences of Construction – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 5
2.1.1 Government Policies on Housing – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 9
2.2 Evolution and Development of Nigeria Housing Policies
and Programmes – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 10
2.3 Economics of Building Analysis – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 11
2.4 Nature and Form of Construction Industry – – – – – – – – – 13

2.4.1 Quality Management in Construction Industry – – – – – – – 14
2.5 Essential of Construction in Economics – – – – – – – – – – 15
2.5.1 Cost Implication of Design Variables – – – – – – – – – – – 16
2.5.2 The Assessment of Building and Construction Resources – – – 20
2.5.3 Design Cost Criteria – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 21
2.5.4 Project Constructability – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 23
2.5.5 Industrial Evolution on Building and Civil Engineering
Organization – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 25
2.5.6 Land Use, Land Planning, Economics Aspects of Land Planning,
Land Value Determinants, Land Ownership, Advantages
and Disadvantages of Ownership – – – – – – – – – – – – – 26
2.7 Construction Resources, Trade Union, and Government – – – – 30
2.7.1 Sources of Construction Organization Finance – – – – – – – – 30
2.8 Financing of Major Project – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 31
2.8.1 Type of Finance – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 33
2.8.2 Trade Union and Associations – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 33
2.8.3 Functions of Trade Union – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 34
2.9 Effects of Government Actions on the Construction
Organization – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 36
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Research Methodology – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 39
3.1 Research Population and Sample- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 39
3.2 Research Design and Approach – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 40
3.3 Method of Data Collection – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 40
3.4 Administration of Instruments – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 42
3.5 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 42

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 43
4.1 Data Presentation – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 43
4.2 Data Analysis – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 43
4.3 Test of Hypothesis – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 44
4.4 Discussion and Findings – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 50

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 51
5.1 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 51
5.2 Recommendation – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -52
Reference – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -53
Questionnaire 55

 

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ANALYSIS OF FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO DELAY IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION PROJECT {CASE STUDY OF OKEHI LOCAL GOVERNMENT}

ANALYSIS OF FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO DELAY IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION PROJECT
{CASE STUDY OF OKEHI LOCAL GOVERNMENT}


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INTRODUCTION
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The construction industry occupies a focal position in a nation economy. It is an essential contribution to the process of development. It is a sub-sector of the economy that creates basic infrastructures needed to accommodate of all other sectors. Olalooku (1987) state that in Nigeria, the construction industry contributes about 5% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Kazie (1987) affirmed that it constitute about 50% of Nigerian government expenditures. The construction industry is crucial in national development.
The two major factors normally considered from inception of a project are cost and completion period. According to Chan and kumaraswamy (1995), completion of project on time is an indication of an efficient and effective construction management. They further started that a project completed on time within budget and to the specified quality is considered successful.
Construction industry in Nigeria is faced with a lot of problems, among which is delay in project execution. Delay in the execution of building projects has been found to be a major setback in the construction industry in Nigeria. Based on the crucial position of the construction industry in the nation’s economy; it becomes necessary to improve efficiently in terms of productivity and management of this section. For the owner, delay means that the asset cannot be used when intended, causing alternative accommodation costs to be incurred or delay receiving income from the assets costs of financing the project could increase, and depending upon the contractual allocation of risk and the events causing the delay, the delay could give rise to claims by the contractor.
For the contractor, a delay means an increase in overheads, such as site staff and facilities, potential liabilies to the supply chain and depending on the reason for the delay, it can mean a liability for delay damages to the owner. The delayed recovery of payments and tie up of resources in the project can also created cash flow problems and the risk of insolvency (Morris, 2007).
For investment purpose; delay in a project execution is a major problem. This is because every purchase of real property is an investment and the essential nature of an investment is the release of capital sum in return for income to be received over a period of time. There has been a trend in recent years for client to include in construction contract liquidated damages.
Construction loans attract a very high rate of interest and as a results construction project ought not to be delayed for even one day. This is because delay has made contractors to pay more in retaining items such as plants and equipments on site, and salaries of key staff on site.
1.1 PROBLEM OF THE STUDY
The problem of project delay is a fact that occurs mostly in building construction project. Delay are always measure as expensive to all parties concerned in the projects and very often it will result in clash, claims, total desertion and much difficulties for feasibility and it slow the growth of building construction firm. The most common problem of delay in building project are natural disaster or force majeure e.g earthquake, flood and some other problem like financial and payment problem, improper planning, poor site management, insufficient experience etc These problem lead to the need of the study.
1.2 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
In becomes vital to improve efficiently in terms of productivity, good planning, selecting sound and experience contractor and proper management of any building construction project so as to complete the project within the stipulated time.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.3.1 AIM OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to identify the causes and the effect of delay in building construction projects and to suggest possible solutions of eradicating or minimizing them.
1.3.2 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The specific objectives of this study are;
I. To identify the major causes of delay in building construction project
II. To evaluate the effect of delay on construction project.
III. To examine the strategies for improving project delivery base on the finding of this study.
1.4 METHODOLOGY
In order to achieve the objectives of this study, the work was pursued through the following;
1.4.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
Relevant literature were reviewed from textbook, journal, past project, internet material etc so as to articulate existing knowledge on causes of delays in building project.
1.4.2 FIELD SURVEY
Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire as the instrument of the study to professional in construction firm. The questionnaires consist of section A and B. section A was use to generate data on respondents profile while section B was to generate data on causes of delay in building construction projects.
1.4.3 DATA ANALYSIS
Data analyses were undertaken using descriptive. Table, means, percentages, likert scale frequency were used to express the statistical result.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study focused on the causes of delay in building project and also to suggest the ways to prevent or reduce them. The study covered a selected building construction firm and some individual in Okehi, Kogi state. Also, the study was limited to only building construction project

 

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ROUTE (ENGINEERING) SURVEYING OF THE MAJOR ROAD WITH KOGI STATE POLYTECHNIC, LOKOJA (MAIN CAMPUS)

ROUTE (ENGINEERING) SURVEYING OF THE MAJOR ROAD WITH KOGI STATE POLYTECHNIC, LOKOJA (MAIN CAMPUS)


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                                                                          ABSTRACT
The aim of this project is to carry out a route survey of major roads within Kogi State Polytechnic main campus Lokoja. The execution involves three exercises which involves total station traversing, longitudinal profile leveling and cross sectional leveling. The NIKO DT-352 total station (coordinate mode) was used to acquire cross sectional and longitudinal sectioning of the route. The result proved the potency of the method in acquiring data for route survey. After carrying out all this, the data was used to product plans showing the oriented route of the study areas i.e the longitudinal and cross sectional line.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page . . . . . . . . i
Approval page . . . . . . . . ii
Dedication . . . . . . . . iii
Acknowledgement . . . . . . . iv
Abstract . . . . . . . . v
Table of contents . . . . . . . v
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Background . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Statement of the problem . . . . . . 1
1.3 Aims and objectives . . . . . . 2
1.3.1 Aims . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3.2 Objectives . . . . . . . . 2
1.4 Study area . . . . . . . . 2
1.5 Scope of work . . . . . . . . 3
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature review . . . . . . . 4
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Methodology . . . . . . . . 7
3.1 Reconnaissance . . . . . . . 7
3.1.1 Office Reconnaissance . . . . . . 7
3.1.2 Field Reconnaissance . . . . . . . 9
3.2 Instrumentation . . . . . . . 9
3.3 Personnel . . . . . . . . 9
3.4 In-situ check . . . . . . . . 10
3.5 Data acquisition using total station . . . . . 12
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Data Processing and analysis
4.1 Software used
4.1.1 Microsoft excel
4.1.2 Auto card
4.2 Plotting the profile
4.2.1 Alignment
4.3 Joining point
4.4 Setting of terrain
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Summary
5.1 Problem encountered
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendations

 

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THE EFFECTS OF SLUM ON RENTAL PROPERTY VALUES

THE EFFECTS OF SLUM ON RENTAL PROPERTY VALUES


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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to historical accounts (Leadership Newspaper), Asata, Coal camp, New market, Ogui urban including Obiagu areas of the city belongs to Ogui Nike people. But during the colonial era, the white men started developing parts of the land owned by the Ogui Nike people. That explains why Obiagu is presently inhabited by people from almost the five south east states namely; Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Imo and even the present day Enugu state.
Also a portion of Obiagu was then inhabited by the Hausa community, who came to the city as either cattle dealers or artisans. But following the events leading to the outbreak of the Nigeria Biafra war in 1967, a good number of Hausa men living in the area left for their different states in the north and never returned to the area, then the community was taken over by Nigerians from other ethnic groups, particularly Igbo, yet it still answer “Ama Hausa” [house of Hausa community], but has refused to shed its toga of a ghetto. When police or other security agencies are looking for suspected criminals, they usually gear their search light on obiagu, because of the belief that it is a criminal infested area (Ubani, 2012).

Most housing decay and deterioration comes in various forms and their existence is more evident in densely populated parts of the city. Some of the characteristics of slum include inadequate and deficient facilities obsolete buildings, filthy environment, etc. Much concern was been shown about the problems of the slum areas particularly on the level of decay exhibited by such areas and the plight of the low income households which dwell in them, this put lives and health of the residents in danger.
Obiagu experienced a large rapid population growth because of the influx of people from different part of the east as a result of the development from the colonial era, hence houses constructed of hands materials sprang up all over the settlement. Thus, the area is crowded with poor housing structures most disorderly located. The settlement has now grown and developed in an unplanned manner resulting in the deterioration of the values of the property and social status of the estate environment.
Therefore, the main aim of the study is to examine the effects of slum on rental property values in Obiagu.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Obiagu is characterized by slum, where the structure are blighted, high level of occupancy mostly low income group, over crowding, under supply of public amenities, bad roads, this is the basis for this research work, trying to examine the effects of slum on the values of property, located their and also to show or establish that slum development is the major set back in urban growth/development.
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of the study is to examine the effects of slum on rental property values in Obiagu. To achieve this aim, the following objectives were raised, they are:
a. To identify the causes and effects of slum on rental property values in the study area.
b. To establish the negative and positive effects of slum on rental property values in the study area.
c. To establish whether slum environment makes investment in real estate and property market transactions, a viable venture.
d. To then recommend the best and possible strategy towards eradicating the slum of obiagu area and hence create a suitable environment that will enhance the property value in the areas.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
In spite to identify, the research problem earlier stated, some questions have been raised by the researcher; it is believed that when right answers are provided for these questions it will lead to the achievement of the objectives of the study.
The questions are as follows:
1. What are the causes and effects of slum on rental property values in Obiagu?
2. Are there any negative and positive impacts of slum on rental property values?
3. Will investment in real estate and property market transactions in Obiagu be a viable venture?
1.5 THEORETICAL FOUNDATION OF THE STUDY
This research is based on the theory of the highest and best use of land. Highest and best use abdicates the application of land in order to gain maximum benefit not only to their owners but the society at large. Obiagu area has not been put to its highest and best use and as such resulted to slum in the area. That is to say, putting land into best use gives room for development. This calls for significance of their research.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study tends to identify the nature of slum in the study area, possible causes and effects on rental values of properties in the area in order to aid relevant authorities to tackle the problem and enhance benefits of real estate property market in the area.
There are many causes of slum which includes indiscriminate development of properties, improper disposal of waste etc. The government and its agencies have not paid much attention to it as a result of insufficient information available to them. This research will increase the interest of government officials on the issue and if the recommendations are adhered to, it will go a long way to eradicate slum in the study area and enhance development and real estate investment.

1.7 SCOPES OF STUDY
This study is restricted to the development of slum in obiagu. The investigation will consider the environmental, social, economic demographic, transportation, infrastructural and housing amenities conditions relevant to enhance estate settings as well as property values.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Limitations of this study include time, financial constraint, lack of sufficient relevant data which the research would have used to give a sufficiently new approach to this form of study.
1.9 OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY
The study starts with an introductory chapter on the research problems and other related issues. Chapter two dwells on literature review, throwing more lights on slum, concept of slum, types of slum, attitudes of slum, causes of blight and factors leading to slum formation types of slum, roles of slum, history of slum etc.
Chapter three talks about the research methodology research method and design, sources of data, collection and instrument for data analysis.
Chapter four deals with data presentation and analysis while chapter five deals with the findings, recommendations and conclusion.

 

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A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RENTAL VARIATION IN RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL PROPERTIES IN NIGERIA

A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RENTAL VARIATION IN RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL PROPERTIES IN NIGERIA


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1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Shelter is a basic necessity in life. An individual can satisfy this need by either occupying his own (owner’s occupier) property or renting another person’s property. In our traditional society, the need for shelter is mainly met through the first alternative that is owner occupation. With the emergency of urban centers’, the situation has changed. Many people are no longer about to own property because of the difficulty in the acquisition of land and the high cost of building construction. Therefore, they are left with the alternative of renting other people’s properties in order to satisfy their need for shelter. Consequently two classes of urban resident have emerged, the landlord and the tenant under this arrangement the tenant pays to the landlord a certain amount of money in consideration for his use of the landlord’s house. This amount is popularly known as rent.
During the civil war the Nigeria that is 1966 to 1970 many landed properties in the urban areas of the former Eastern Region of Nigeria, including Enugu, were destroyed. Consequently, there was a sharp decline in the supply of landed properties after the war. Furthermore, the post – civil war period witnessed an unprecedented number of the rural population trooping into the urban centres due to the conspicuous prosperity brought about in the urban area by the oil boom. This resulted to high demand for the existing limited supply of landed properties. Consequent upon these, rent for landed properties increased considerably.
This trend has continued with the effect that “the average worker is paying 30% to 40% of his salary as rent” (Oshadiya, 1985). Thus the increase in rents on the properties has led to the variation of rent on properties.
In urban area due to location advantage (for example prime location) which some properties offer above others for commercial and residential uses, rent tend to very on account of the type of use which a property can offer.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Location of economic properties has been a difficult concept to understand. Although the primary objective of commercial properties is the derivation of financial gains, while that of residential properties is for habitation, shelter and comfort, the demand for land is a reflection of the profitability or utility derivable from its use. The greater the benefit to be obtained from a particular use, the higher the rent that the user will be willing to pay for it.
There appear to be wide ranging differences in the levels of rent passing on residential and commercial properties in Enugu and Nigeria generally.
This research is seeking among other things to find out the causes of rental variation in commercial and residential properties in Nigeria, Ogui New Layout and G.R.A as a case study.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main aim of this research is to examine the reasons for rental variation in commercial and residential properties with a view to provide tool to be used in catching issues related to rent on these properties in Enugu and Nigeria generally.
To achieve the standard goal, the following objectives are to be pursued;
i) To identify the level of rents for commercial and residential properties in the study area.
ii) To ascertain and examine the factors influencing the rents being commanded by these properties.
iii) To determine or examine whether the income of prospective buyers/tenants affect their decision to acquire properties.
iv) To ascertain if there is disparity in rental values for residential and commercial properties in the study area.
v) To find out the rate of demand between commercial and residential properties?

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. What is the level of rent for commercial and residential properties in Ogui New Layout and G.R.A respectively between years 2002-2004?
ii. What are the factors influencing rents passing on those commercial and residential properties.
iii. Does the income of prospective buyers/tenants affect their decision to acquire properties?
iv. Is there any disparity in the rental value or rent passing on residential and commercial properties in the study area?
v. Amongst properties put for Commercial and Residential use, which is on a higher rate of demand?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The finding of this study will be of benefit to the following groups;
Firstly, tenants who are charged rents based on different reasons, especially when the properties are of the same nature (physically). This will again enable the investors not only to understand how occupier thinks, but also why and the things they consider before acquiring properties for certain uses.
Secondly, the generality of the public can now understand the reason why the rents being commanded by these properties have to differ.

Lastly, this research work will help to determine the factors influencing, commercial and residential properties which is an essential pre-requisite to successful development as well as stimulating interest in the students to carryout out further research on the topic.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study covers a period of three years (2002 to 2004) and it is restricted to selected properties (Residential and commercial) comprising blocks of flat and tenements in Ogui New Layout and G.R.A, Enugu.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Expectedly, this work met with some hindrances during the stage of data collection. The issue of rent passing on a property (residential or commercial) is usually regarded as classified information, which is not easily disclosed to people particularly researchers. This was largely suspected to be the reason why some Estate surveyors, property owners, tenants, Estate firms, property companies and even Estate agents who were approached through oral interviews, discussions and visitations found it rather difficult to reveal essential information despite every explanation that the exercise is strictly for academic purposes, a good number of them, still nursed the fear that it may be for property rating and taxation purposes.
There was also the problem of logistics occasioned by the society. The researcher worked with a very light budget throughout the period of study as the frequent and repeated visits to relevant persons and offices entailed quite some money. Moreover, also recall that some of the interview respondents were not co-operative as they kept on playing to the gallery as a means of avoiding supplying the required information. On a general note however, the researcher ensured that these bottle – necks never affected the findings of this study since the success far outweighed the hindrances as enumerated.
1.8 OVERVIEW OF STUDY
Chapter one treats the introduction of the project work. Chapter two deals with literature review, chapter three treats the research methodology, chapter four is on data presentation, analysis and interpretation and chapter five deals with findings recommendation and conclusion.
1.9 DEFINITION OF RELEVANT TERMS
RENT: The universal dictionary of the English language (1971) defined rent as the regular payment made for the use of land or buildings that belongs to someone else. The Economist defined rent as “the revenue from land resources that is equal to the value of its marginal services rendered in a productive process” (Richfield, 1974).
In summary therefore, the word rent is that fixed periodic payment made by a tenant to his landlord for the exclusive possession and use of leased property.
PROPERTIES: According to the High Court, the Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court, property is the right to possession, enjoyment and disposition of all rights and things subject to ownership.
Property is therefore a legal right expressing the relationship between a person, the owner and his possession of the thing owned.
A RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY: according to Kilpatrick (1999) is a land use in which housing predominates, as opposed to industrial and commercial areas. Housing may vary significantly between, and through, residential areas. These include single-family housing, multi-family residential, or mobile homes.
COMMERCIAL PROPERTY: According to Malys (2012), this refers to buildings or land intended to generate a profit, either from capital gain or rental income. It includes office buildings, industrial property, medical centers, hotels, malls, retail stores, farm land, multifamily housing buildings, warehouses, and garages. In many states, residential property containing more than a certain number of units qualifies as commercial property for borrowing and tax purposes.

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PROBLEM OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL (THE CASE STUDY OF FELELE METROPOLITAN AREA)

PROBLEM OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL
(THE CASE STUDY OF FELELE METROPOLITAN AREA)


NUMBERS PAGES: 71         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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                                                                         ABSTRACT
The study aimed ensuring a clean environment in the felele Metropolis. It analysed the
underlying factors affecting effective solid waste management in the metropolis and
suggested possible measures to tackle the problem. The research gathered data from two
main sources namely: secondary and primary sources. The three main techniques employed
in gathering the primary data were: preliminary field investigation, questionnaire survey and
face-to-face interview. The following key findings were established to be the factors
affecting effective solid waste management in the Metropolis. These are:

-Inadequate skip supply for storing waste.
-Lack of routine collection of waste.
-Poor methods of waste management.
-Inadequate resources for waste management institutions to effectively collect the
waste generated.
In the light of these problems enumerated above, the research recommended the adequate
supply of skips, regular collection of waste, use of Integrated Solid Waste Management
(ISWM) Model, proper management of the landfill and adequate sourcing of the waste
management institutions.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Content
Page
Title Page……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… i
Declaration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ii
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. iii
Dedication…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. iv
Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………………………………………….. v
Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………………………………….. vi
List of Tables……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………..viii
List of Figures……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ix
List of Abbreviations/Acronyms……………………………………………………………………………. x
CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study…………………………………………………………………………………. 1
1.2 Problem Statement…………………………………………………………………………………………..2
1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Study……………………………………………………………………. 3
1.4 Scope of Study………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
1.5 Justification of Study……………………………………………………………………………………… 6
1.6 Chapter Organisation……………………………………………………………………………………… 6
1.7 Limitations of Study……………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
1.8 Research Direction………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
CHAPTER TWO: SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
2.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
2.2 Waste………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8
2.3 Solid Waste Management ………………………………………………………………………………… 11
2.4 Early Practices of Solid Waste Management…………………………………………………….. 14
2.5 Contemporary Methods of Managing Solid Waste……………………………………………. 15
2.6 Problems of Managing Solid Waste………………………………………………………………….. 19
2.7 Solid Waste Management in nigeria………………………………………………………………….. 21
2.6. Key Issues…………………………………………………………………………… 29
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
3.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31
3.2 Secondary Data………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31
3.3 Primary Data Collection…………………………………………………………………………………. 31
3.4 Data Processing and Analysis…………………………………………………………………………… 37
3.5 Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43
4.2 Waste Management Plan of TAMA………………………………………………………………… 43
4.3 Waste Management in TAMA………………………………………………………………………….. 43
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND
CONCLUSION
5.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62
5.2 Key Findings……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 62
5.3 Recommendations …………………………………………………………………………………………… 64
5.4 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 66
References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 68
Appendices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 71
vii

 

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PAINT FACTORY MAKURDI

PAINT FACTORY MAKURDI


NUMBERS PAGES: 60         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Paint Factory or plant is an industrial site, usually consisting of buildings and machinery, or more commonly a complex having several buildings, where workers process raw materials into paint.
Factories arose with the introduction of machinery during the industrial revolution when the capital and space requirements became too great for cottage industry and workshops.
Paint is a subdivision of surface coating. It is a relatively opaque solid coating applied as thin layer whose films are usually formed by polymerization of polyunsaturated oil. However, other subdivisions of surface coating include: varnishes (clear coating), enamels (pigmented varnishes), lacquers (film formed by evaporation only), printing inks and polishes. Paints generally have very low thermal conductivity, electrically inert and can be washed and cleaned. The various raw materials for making paints include pigments, vehicle, alkyd resins, surfactants, solvents (thinners) and colouring matters.
Paints are classified into two principal types:
Resin based paints (Gloss finishes) and Latex based paints (Emulsion paints). The major difference between the two is only in the types of vehicle used and cost.
* Resin based paints are used for exterior and interior surfaces and are dry to a lustrous or shinny finish.
* Emulsion (Latex) paint involves the emulsion of 2-phases one of which is water and any other phase.
Classically, emulsion is a suspension of one phase in another. Latex paints have as their major film forming constituent synthetic resin latex with or without other film forming constituents added in an oil-water emulsion type system. The continuous phase consists of an alkali – dispersed hydropholic colloid in water and contains two more different types of particles in suspension, styrene – butadeux (SBR) copolymer which was the original quality film former in emulsion paint. Polyvinyl acetate (PVA), acrylic and PVA acrylics copolymers have largely replaced SBR as film former.
From these, resins and latex are made objects with a wide range of colours and texture found in household wares, building materials, electrical and electronic appliances, automobile and aeronautics, clothing, building structures etc. in short it s difficult to imagine contemporary society without painting (colours).
Paints are the material employed as finishing for other materials. They are used to protect metals, timber and plastered surface from the effect of weather, heat, moisture, gases etc., thereby improving their appearance. Paints are classified into oil, water and cement and bituminom paints. There are also special paints used for special purpose e.g. heat resisting, fire proofing, chlorinated rubber paint etc.

Paint factory is regarded as an important or essential industry in many country because of it effect and function in the environment. Finally, this project (paint factory) will help in improving on the face lift of Makurdi as the capital of Benue State as well as the job opportunities which our teeming youths desire.
1.2 STATEMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PROBLEM
In an industrial building of this nature, it is impossible to solve all architectural problems involved. However, every building has a general architectural problem that has to be solved towards the realization of the design. But, there are some specific problems that are unique to individual projects, for example a paint factory.
Subsequently, the core problem this project seek to solve is centered on its purpose; a compromise between man and machine. And this involves a careful flow in the synthesis of:
o Efficient work flow
o Making a statement to the society reflecting the mass production nature of the paint factory.
o Advertising the paint products to the society as well as creating a welcome impact.
o Expressing orderliness and aesthetic appeal.
o Creating openness in plant to give an impression of attractive working conditions, efficient production and painstaking devotion to the excellence of paint products.
1.3 OBJECTIVES
The principal objective of this project is to provide an environment capable of meeting the needs of the people of Makurdi and Nigeria as a whole by providing them with a well defined paint factory which is ultra-modern and which will meet their several needs in terms of seeking a solution for good appearance and packaging of good products.
Other objectives include:
*To create versatile, adaptable and flexible form for easy expansion with minimum damage.
*To provide a good production layout with no conflict between raw and finished goods and personnel in circulation.
*To create an ideal factory architecture and to introduce a level of automation in the proposed paint factory in Nigeria.
*Finally, to help in the state and Federal Government Programme in rural development and this could be achieved through industrial development.

1.5 AIMS
The ultimate aim of this project is to create, functional, simple, pleasing, economical, orderly, flexible, safe and convenient industrial building – paint factory.
And to satisfy the key words of the aims, the following are inevitable:
1.To achieve an effective and efficient design for a factory with a serious view to flexibility, adaptability and versatility of the building structures. Therefore, the aim is to realize a purely functional planning with a specific purpose of smooth and maximum efficient working of the different machineries, the administration of the complex and the overall production.
2. To create a system that will allow personnel; operational and administrative to enjoy efficient and pleasant working environment.
3. To provide efficient circulation system between the individual units of the factory and within the layout as a whole thereby facilitating easy movement and assemblage of raw materials and distribution of finished products.
4. To enhance the psychology of workers towards efficiency by creating an aesthetical industrial architecture.
5. To reflect the use to which the factory is to be put into which will be in form of an advertisement for the products.
6.  There will be a deviation from the old idea which emphasizes much on mass to a modern approach which gives emphasis on lines and planes (volume).

 

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DOMESTIC AIRPORT TERMINAL BUILDING

DOMESTIC AIRPORT TERMINAL BUILDING


NUMBERS PAGES: 100         RESEARCH TYPE:- Thesis        AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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INTRODUCTION
The subject of airport passenger terminal building must involve a discussion of transportation.
Transportation has remained one of the most vital factors that influence the development of a nation. The credibility of this statement has been proven over the centuries, that if one decides to take a critical look at earlier civilizations, from the time of early Egyptian civilization to the current civilized world, one will discover that many of the great feats achieved during these civilizations would have been impossible without one form of transportation or the other.
By way of definition; transportation (or transport) is the movement of people, animals and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, rail, road, water, cable, pipeline and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles and operations. Transportation is important since it enables trade between people, which in turn establishes civilizations.
Transport infrastructure consists of the fixed installations necessary for transport, including roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals and pipelines and terminals such as airports, railway stations, bus stations, warehouses, trucking terminals, refuelling depots (including fuelling docks and fuel stations) and seaports. Terminals may be used both for interchange of passengers and cargo and for maintenance.

1.1.0 BACKGROUND TO THE PROJECT
The airport terminal is a building at an airport where passengers transfer between ground transportation and the facilities that allow them to board and disembark from the aircraft. Within the terminal, passengers purchase tickets, transfer their luggage, and go through security. The buildings that provide access to the airplanes (via gates) are typically called concoures. However, the terms terminals and concourses are used interchangably, depending on the configuration of the airport.
Smaller airports have one terminal while larger airports have several terminals and/or concourses. At small airports, the single terminal building typically serves all of the functions of a terminal and a concourse. Some larger airports have one terminal that is connected to multiple concourses via walkways, sky-bridges, or underground tunnels (such as Denver International Airport). Some larger airports have more than one terminal, each with one or more concourses (such as New York?s John F. Kennedy Airport). Still other larger airports have multiple terminals each of which incorporate the functions of a concourse (such as Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport).
According to Frommers, most airport terminals are built in a plain style, with the concrete boxes of the 1960s and ?70s generally gave way to glass boxes in the ?90s and ?00s, with the best terminals making a vague stab at incorporating ideas of light and air. However, some, such as Baghdad International Airport, are monumental in stature, while others are considered architectural masterpieces, such as Terminal 1 at Charles de Gaulle Airport near Paris or Terminal 5 at New York?s John F. Kennedy Airport. A few are designed to reflect the culture of a particular area, some examples being the terminal at Albuquerque International Sunport in New Mexico, which is designed in the Pueblo Revival Style popularized by architect John Gaw Meem, as well as the one at Bahiasde Huatulco International Airport in Huatulco, Oaxaca, Mexico, which features some palapas that are interconnected to form the airport terminal building.

1.2.0 STATEMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PROBLEM
A functional airport passenger terminal is meant to ease the stress encountered by airpassengers during the process of air travel. Therefore the architectural problem of the project is how best to provide an aesthetically pleasant, efficient, economical, bigger and more modern domestic airport passenger terminal, with good flexibility and expansion capabilities, to replace the outdated and small existing airprot terminal at Makurdi for Federal Airports Authority of Nigeria (FAAN).

1.3.0 AIMS
The primary aims/goals of the design are as follows: to provide/design a suitable passenger terminal building in the Makurdi Airport which would potray a good image of Benue State to provde a passenger terminal building as well as other auxilliary facilities with the necessary tools requisite for air transportation activities as well as upgrade the economic facet of Makurdi city. to ensure these facilities will streamline the productivity in the airport without interruption or interference from each other or any source; and to provide a design that will adequately contain all the kinds of functions and activities associated with air travel to be carried out in the airport which will be expanded for this purpose.

1.4.0 OBJECTIVES
The principal objective of this project is to provide Makurdi Airport with a ultra-modern, befitting and function passenger airport terminal building which has been badly absent since the construction of that airport and also to upgrade the landscape around it and prescribe other salient facilities which have been omitted.
In appreciation of the particular demands of the project, I opt; To situate the structure in an ideal location that easily catches eye sight from around the environment and can be easily accessible to staff, air travellers, as well as visitors; To ensure good road network that create easy flow of vehicular and human traffic; To consider the environmental consequences as far as they are not a detriment to the proposed development. To minimise costs by putting construction techniques, and employing materials within the level of technology that is commensurate with our national aspiration. To ensure flexibility and adaptability for future changes in use of facilities or space; To ensure efficient security within and around the facility premises; To ensure the terminal building, the parking lots and other auxilliary facilities are strategically placed for easy accessibilty from one to the others;

 

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