A REPORT ON URBAN DESIGN (A CASE STUDY OF PART OF LOKOJA METROPOLIS I.E. NEW LAYOUT, COMMENTARY, CINIMAL, HOLY TRINITY, BAPTIST CHURCH AND ALHARI LOKOJA KOGI STATE)

A REPORT ON URBAN DESIGN (A CASE STUDY OF PART OF LOKOJA METROPOLIS I.E. NEW LAYOUT, COMMENTARY, CINIMAL, HOLY TRINITY, BAPTIST CHURCH AND ALHARI LOKOJA KOGI STATE)


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CHAPTER ONE

URBAN DESIGN

1.0    INTRODUCTION

Urban design is a collaborator and multidisciplinary process of shaping the physical environment for life in cities, towns that is in urban areas.

According to “Peter Buchana” urban design is about how to recapture certain of the qualities that we associate with the traditional city, a sense of order, place, continuity, richness of experience completeness and belonging urban design lies somewhere between the broad-brush abstractions of planning and the concrete and the concrete specifics of architecture.

Urban design is concerned with analyzing, organizing and shaping urban form so as to elaborate as richly as coherently as possible they lived experience of the inhabitants. It is the process of designing and shaping cities and towns it deals with the larger scale of groups of buildings, street and public spaces, whole neigboourhood and district and entire cities with the goal of making urban areas functional, attractive and sustainable.

This theory deals primarily with the design and management of public space i.e. the public environment, public realm or public domain, and the way public spaces are experienced and used. Public spaces include the totality of spaces used freely by a day to day basis by the general public, such as streets, plazas, park and public infrastructure. Some aspects of privately owned spaces, such as building facades or domestic gardens, also contribute to public space and are therefore also considered by urban design theory.

1.1. FIELD OBSERVATION

This involves physical and direct examination of physical and existing situation of the study area.

  1. Rekey survey:- This is also known as recognizance survey. The rekey survey was carried out to check features such as the area covered, land form major boundary e.t.c
  2. Taping:- Involve line and direct measurement of the existing structures as well as to determine the total land mass or area. From observation and practical confirmation, the study area has a total land area of about 442500m2 (metre square) and 44.25 hecter respectively.
  3. Site analysis:- The sun rise from the Eastand set at West as usually water run off from West North to the South East of the study area. Morning wind direction is to North-West afternoon wind direction to North while evening wind direction to East. We have or observes four (4) well water half functioned. While on circulation, the Angera tile area has planned circulating but others are not planned to standard.
  4. Demolition:- This involve the pulling and falling down of building/structures as well as tree and created signpost during the cause of upgrading the quality and standard of facilities in the study area, 51 houses were touched or demolish for proper implementation of the new proposal aside trees and others.
  5. Circulation:- About 75% of the existing roads are from to accident due to unusual curves and bends and undefined junction. Also some of the roads terminate to or at the middle of residents. Still on circulation, part of the liberty hotel street has not been tauded up till nor due to political bus during the administration of Alh, Ibrahim Idris as a prominent member of the street withdraw this support from his political affairs.
  6. Physical condition of buildings:- Generally, the condition of buildings in the study area is fear with just few standard houses such as school. There is a duple building behind or at back of international hotel off Hassan Otokiti close collapsing beyond repair, proper attention must be given to this situation to ensure safety of life of residents within the area.
  7. Site platting:- The platting of the study area is may in the same shape some play are bigger than others while others are in irregular shape given some part of the study area difficulty for circulation and open space.
  8. Government baise:- In the study area we discoved that the government upgraded some part of the accessibility while they left others because of political issue.

1.2    THE STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

  1. Poor and inadequate drainage facilities
  2. Inadequate water supply
  3. Poor electric supply
  4. Poor hosing condition
  5. Improper refuse waste disposal
  6. Poor circulation

1.3    THE AIM AND OBJECTIVE

THE AIM

The aim of this work is to make necessary provisions and improvements on infrastructure in order too improve on their standard of living.

THE OBJECTIVES

  1. To make provisions for adequate drainage facilities
  2. To provide for adequate water supply
  3. Making provisions for proper refuse disposal to ensure a good housing condition
  4. To improve on the standard of circulation

1.4    SCOPE AND LIMITATION

The work some part of Lokoja metropolis i.e. new layout, cemetery, cinema, holy trinity, Baptist, Alheri. And the issues of the problems faced in that area are discussed and how the problem can be solved.

1.5    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study will help to access the quality of the existing facilities of the area. And also the problems facing there, and the factor responsible for it. While help create a better living environment.

1.6    STUDY AREA

The study area has mixed occupation, some are self-employed while others are civil servant. The area is mainly for residential and few public and commercial land use.

1.7    LOCATION

The study area (part of Lokoja metropolis) is located at latitude 70 48’0”N and longitude 6044’0”E. it is among the first settlement found in Lokoja. It is in this area that one can find the government house and also the G.R.A of kogi state as a whole, the area is know to be a centre of different commercial activities in Lokoja metropolis.

1.8    CLIMATE AND RAINFALL

The study are lies in the middle but Zone. It has a average rainfall of 1300mm-1800mm and temperature of about 350c to 400c.

28 – 380c

1.9    VEGETATION

It falls within the Sudan savannah but of the vegetation of Nigeria. It is found north of decides forest Zone. The grasses found in this but are usually very short and tall, hence they receive up to 1000mm of rainfall annually and the duration not less than 4-5 month (April-September).

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

The people that first build house in that area were Hassan Okiti and Idamodu Muhammed (a.k.a. Bawahala) before others started to develop. The settlement is a part of Lokoja metropolis and it emerged as a result of the relocation of the Tiv people. The relocation happened due to the need for the NEPA officials to find an office.

The first Christian worship centre in the united evangelical church (UEC).

The name “new layout” is used because the place was a former proposed G.R.A.

Thus, both state and local government allocated plots of land for people.

There is no general culture due to difference in ethnicity. The ethnic group includes Yourba, Ebira, Kakanda, Nupe, Koto, Bassa, Tir, Igala, Igbos

chapter one. Chapter two relate to literature review and theoretical framework concerning urbanization and its challenges. The research method is outlined in chapter three while the responses from the questionnaire respondents were presented and discussed in chapter four. Concluding comments in chapter five reflects on summary, conclusion and recommendations.

 

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CAUSES OF BUILDING COLLAPSE AND ITS PREVENTION (A CASE STUDY OF OWORO HOUSING ESTATE KOGI STATE)

CAUSES OF BUILDING COLLAPSE AND ITS PREVENTION
(A CASE STUDY OF OWORO HOUSING ESTATE KOGI STATE)


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                                                                             ABSTRACT
Many recent collapse of building occurred both during construction and following occupancy. Such failures have received professional and public attention due to the major losses of life and property. Five recommendations resulting from the Engineering Foundations Conference “Building Structural Failures – their cause and prevention”. The recommendations addresses structural integrity, life safety insurance, peer review, definition and assignment of responsibility, and unified risk insurance. The nature and magnitude of the problem, the design process, the construction process, legal implications and the regulatory process are covered.
On this fact, This research was fashion on how to prevent and deal with collapse causes in building. The method used in sourcing the material used for the collection of data was orally interview with 30 professionals in the research field, e.g. builders, architects, quantity surveyor, structural engineers etc. the answers received was presented and analyzed using statistical demographical tools. This research concludes that, foundation failure and faulty design among others are major causes of collapse in building. The research recommend that thorough inspection of sites should be done by professionals, before, during and after construction. client should engage professional and avoid quacks, Government on its own part should enforce policy on construction activity in the study area.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _i
Approval Page _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ii
Dedication_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ iii
Acknowledgement_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _iv
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1
1.1 background of the study_ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ 7
Aim and Objectives_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7
1.4 Aims of the Research_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7
1.4.1 Objectives of the Research _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7
1.5 Scope and limitation_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8
1.5.1 Scope_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8
1.5.2 Limitation_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8
1.6 Methodology_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8
1.6.1 Literature review_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8
1.6.2 Research design_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8
1.6.3 Data analysis_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 9
2.1 the complexity of the building_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 14
2.2 effect of building collapse in Nigeria_ _ _ _ _ _ 15
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 research methodology
3.1 research design_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 16
3.2 Fields Survey_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 22
3.3 Population of the Study_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 22
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 22
3.5 Method of data Analysis_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 23

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Data Presentation and Discussion_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 24
4.1 Data Presentation _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 24
4.2 Data Analysis _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 24

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 27
5.1 Conclusion _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 27
5.2 Recommendation _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 28
Reference

 

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THE EFFECTS OF GENERAL ECONOMY AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON HOUSING (A CASE STUDY OF LOKOJA KOGI STATE)

THE EFFECTS OF GENERAL ECONOMY AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON HOUSING
(A CASE STUDY OF LOKOJA KOGI STATE)


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                                                                           ABSTRACT
This research was carried out to examine how government policies and the economy of the nation are affecting organizations and individuals towards owning their own house(s) using Lokoja as a case study.
The researcher’s information relied on data collected through questionnaire, (50 questionnaires were issued out and 40 was received back), oral interview followed by note taking. Our findings show that the economy of Kogi state and the state government policies affect the citizens.
Based on this result, conclusion was drawn that general economics and government policies have crucial and negative effect on building constructions as it holds back majority of having a place to call their home. The result obtained from our research proved that everyone can own a building if government reduces the effect of economics and their policies on building constructions. The following recommendations were made that Kogi State government should look into how their policies and economics are having effects on building constructions such as tax, cost of transportation, bad roads, cost of building materials, price of fuel used in transporting building material and plants and so on. Also teams should be assign to ensure all this are put in place and strictly observed, it is expected of government to reduce economical and governmental policies that are affecting building construction so as to make it easier for everyone to own a home.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – i
Approval Page – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – iv

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Need of Study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3
1.2 Justification of the Study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3
1.3 Aim and Objectives – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3
1.4 Aims of the Research – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3
1.4.1 Objectives of the Research – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 4
1.5 Scope and limitation – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 4

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 5
2.1 Sequences of Construction – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 5
2.1.1 Government Policies on Housing – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 9
2.2 Evolution and Development of Nigeria Housing Policies
and Programmes – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 10
2.3 Economics of Building Analysis – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 11
2.4 Nature and Form of Construction Industry – – – – – – – – – 13

2.4.1 Quality Management in Construction Industry – – – – – – – 14
2.5 Essential of Construction in Economics – – – – – – – – – – 15
2.5.1 Cost Implication of Design Variables – – – – – – – – – – – 16
2.5.2 The Assessment of Building and Construction Resources – – – 20
2.5.3 Design Cost Criteria – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 21
2.5.4 Project Constructability – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 23
2.5.5 Industrial Evolution on Building and Civil Engineering
Organization – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 25
2.5.6 Land Use, Land Planning, Economics Aspects of Land Planning,
Land Value Determinants, Land Ownership, Advantages
and Disadvantages of Ownership – – – – – – – – – – – – – 26
2.7 Construction Resources, Trade Union, and Government – – – – 30
2.7.1 Sources of Construction Organization Finance – – – – – – – – 30
2.8 Financing of Major Project – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 31
2.8.1 Type of Finance – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 33
2.8.2 Trade Union and Associations – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 33
2.8.3 Functions of Trade Union – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 34
2.9 Effects of Government Actions on the Construction
Organization – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 36
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Research Methodology – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 39
3.1 Research Population and Sample- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 39
3.2 Research Design and Approach – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 40
3.3 Method of Data Collection – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 40
3.4 Administration of Instruments – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 42
3.5 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 42

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 43
4.1 Data Presentation – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 43
4.2 Data Analysis – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 43
4.3 Test of Hypothesis – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 44
4.4 Discussion and Findings – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 50

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 51
5.1 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 51
5.2 Recommendation – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -52
Reference – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -53
Questionnaire 55

 

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ANALYSIS OF FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO DELAY IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION PROJECT {CASE STUDY OF OKEHI LOCAL GOVERNMENT}

ANALYSIS OF FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO DELAY IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION PROJECT
{CASE STUDY OF OKEHI LOCAL GOVERNMENT}


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INTRODUCTION
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The construction industry occupies a focal position in a nation economy. It is an essential contribution to the process of development. It is a sub-sector of the economy that creates basic infrastructures needed to accommodate of all other sectors. Olalooku (1987) state that in Nigeria, the construction industry contributes about 5% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Kazie (1987) affirmed that it constitute about 50% of Nigerian government expenditures. The construction industry is crucial in national development.
The two major factors normally considered from inception of a project are cost and completion period. According to Chan and kumaraswamy (1995), completion of project on time is an indication of an efficient and effective construction management. They further started that a project completed on time within budget and to the specified quality is considered successful.
Construction industry in Nigeria is faced with a lot of problems, among which is delay in project execution. Delay in the execution of building projects has been found to be a major setback in the construction industry in Nigeria. Based on the crucial position of the construction industry in the nation’s economy; it becomes necessary to improve efficiently in terms of productivity and management of this section. For the owner, delay means that the asset cannot be used when intended, causing alternative accommodation costs to be incurred or delay receiving income from the assets costs of financing the project could increase, and depending upon the contractual allocation of risk and the events causing the delay, the delay could give rise to claims by the contractor.
For the contractor, a delay means an increase in overheads, such as site staff and facilities, potential liabilies to the supply chain and depending on the reason for the delay, it can mean a liability for delay damages to the owner. The delayed recovery of payments and tie up of resources in the project can also created cash flow problems and the risk of insolvency (Morris, 2007).
For investment purpose; delay in a project execution is a major problem. This is because every purchase of real property is an investment and the essential nature of an investment is the release of capital sum in return for income to be received over a period of time. There has been a trend in recent years for client to include in construction contract liquidated damages.
Construction loans attract a very high rate of interest and as a results construction project ought not to be delayed for even one day. This is because delay has made contractors to pay more in retaining items such as plants and equipments on site, and salaries of key staff on site.
1.1 PROBLEM OF THE STUDY
The problem of project delay is a fact that occurs mostly in building construction project. Delay are always measure as expensive to all parties concerned in the projects and very often it will result in clash, claims, total desertion and much difficulties for feasibility and it slow the growth of building construction firm. The most common problem of delay in building project are natural disaster or force majeure e.g earthquake, flood and some other problem like financial and payment problem, improper planning, poor site management, insufficient experience etc These problem lead to the need of the study.
1.2 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
In becomes vital to improve efficiently in terms of productivity, good planning, selecting sound and experience contractor and proper management of any building construction project so as to complete the project within the stipulated time.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.3.1 AIM OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to identify the causes and the effect of delay in building construction projects and to suggest possible solutions of eradicating or minimizing them.
1.3.2 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The specific objectives of this study are;
I. To identify the major causes of delay in building construction project
II. To evaluate the effect of delay on construction project.
III. To examine the strategies for improving project delivery base on the finding of this study.
1.4 METHODOLOGY
In order to achieve the objectives of this study, the work was pursued through the following;
1.4.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
Relevant literature were reviewed from textbook, journal, past project, internet material etc so as to articulate existing knowledge on causes of delays in building project.
1.4.2 FIELD SURVEY
Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire as the instrument of the study to professional in construction firm. The questionnaires consist of section A and B. section A was use to generate data on respondents profile while section B was to generate data on causes of delay in building construction projects.
1.4.3 DATA ANALYSIS
Data analyses were undertaken using descriptive. Table, means, percentages, likert scale frequency were used to express the statistical result.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study focused on the causes of delay in building project and also to suggest the ways to prevent or reduce them. The study covered a selected building construction firm and some individual in Okehi, Kogi state. Also, the study was limited to only building construction project

 

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ROUTE (ENGINEERING) SURVEYING OF THE MAJOR ROAD WITH KOGI STATE POLYTECHNIC, LOKOJA (MAIN CAMPUS)

ROUTE (ENGINEERING) SURVEYING OF THE MAJOR ROAD WITH KOGI STATE POLYTECHNIC, LOKOJA (MAIN CAMPUS)


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                                                                          ABSTRACT
The aim of this project is to carry out a route survey of major roads within Kogi State Polytechnic main campus Lokoja. The execution involves three exercises which involves total station traversing, longitudinal profile leveling and cross sectional leveling. The NIKO DT-352 total station (coordinate mode) was used to acquire cross sectional and longitudinal sectioning of the route. The result proved the potency of the method in acquiring data for route survey. After carrying out all this, the data was used to product plans showing the oriented route of the study areas i.e the longitudinal and cross sectional line.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page . . . . . . . . i
Approval page . . . . . . . . ii
Dedication . . . . . . . . iii
Acknowledgement . . . . . . . iv
Abstract . . . . . . . . v
Table of contents . . . . . . . v
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Background . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Statement of the problem . . . . . . 1
1.3 Aims and objectives . . . . . . 2
1.3.1 Aims . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3.2 Objectives . . . . . . . . 2
1.4 Study area . . . . . . . . 2
1.5 Scope of work . . . . . . . . 3
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature review . . . . . . . 4
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Methodology . . . . . . . . 7
3.1 Reconnaissance . . . . . . . 7
3.1.1 Office Reconnaissance . . . . . . 7
3.1.2 Field Reconnaissance . . . . . . . 9
3.2 Instrumentation . . . . . . . 9
3.3 Personnel . . . . . . . . 9
3.4 In-situ check . . . . . . . . 10
3.5 Data acquisition using total station . . . . . 12
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Data Processing and analysis
4.1 Software used
4.1.1 Microsoft excel
4.1.2 Auto card
4.2 Plotting the profile
4.2.1 Alignment
4.3 Joining point
4.4 Setting of terrain
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Summary
5.1 Problem encountered
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendations

 

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