CAUSES OF BUILDING COLLAPSE AND ITS PREVENTION (A CASE STUDY OF OWORO HOUSING ESTATE KOGI STATE)

CAUSES OF BUILDING COLLAPSE AND ITS PREVENTION
(A CASE STUDY OF OWORO HOUSING ESTATE KOGI STATE)


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                                                                             ABSTRACT
Many recent collapse of building occurred both during construction and following occupancy. Such failures have received professional and public attention due to the major losses of life and property. Five recommendations resulting from the Engineering Foundations Conference “Building Structural Failures – their cause and prevention”. The recommendations addresses structural integrity, life safety insurance, peer review, definition and assignment of responsibility, and unified risk insurance. The nature and magnitude of the problem, the design process, the construction process, legal implications and the regulatory process are covered.
On this fact, This research was fashion on how to prevent and deal with collapse causes in building. The method used in sourcing the material used for the collection of data was orally interview with 30 professionals in the research field, e.g. builders, architects, quantity surveyor, structural engineers etc. the answers received was presented and analyzed using statistical demographical tools. This research concludes that, foundation failure and faulty design among others are major causes of collapse in building. The research recommend that thorough inspection of sites should be done by professionals, before, during and after construction. client should engage professional and avoid quacks, Government on its own part should enforce policy on construction activity in the study area.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _i
Approval Page _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ii
Dedication_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ iii
Acknowledgement_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _iv
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1
1.1 background of the study_ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ 7
Aim and Objectives_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7
1.4 Aims of the Research_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7
1.4.1 Objectives of the Research _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7
1.5 Scope and limitation_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8
1.5.1 Scope_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8
1.5.2 Limitation_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8
1.6 Methodology_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8
1.6.1 Literature review_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8
1.6.2 Research design_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8
1.6.3 Data analysis_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 9
2.1 the complexity of the building_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 14
2.2 effect of building collapse in Nigeria_ _ _ _ _ _ 15
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 research methodology
3.1 research design_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 16
3.2 Fields Survey_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 22
3.3 Population of the Study_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 22
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 22
3.5 Method of data Analysis_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 23

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Data Presentation and Discussion_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 24
4.1 Data Presentation _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 24
4.2 Data Analysis _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 24

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 27
5.1 Conclusion _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 27
5.2 Recommendation _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 28
Reference

 

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THE EFFECTS OF GENERAL ECONOMY AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON HOUSING (A CASE STUDY OF LOKOJA KOGI STATE)

THE EFFECTS OF GENERAL ECONOMY AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON HOUSING
(A CASE STUDY OF LOKOJA KOGI STATE)


NUMBERS PAGES: 60         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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                                                                           ABSTRACT
This research was carried out to examine how government policies and the economy of the nation are affecting organizations and individuals towards owning their own house(s) using Lokoja as a case study.
The researcher’s information relied on data collected through questionnaire, (50 questionnaires were issued out and 40 was received back), oral interview followed by note taking. Our findings show that the economy of Kogi state and the state government policies affect the citizens.
Based on this result, conclusion was drawn that general economics and government policies have crucial and negative effect on building constructions as it holds back majority of having a place to call their home. The result obtained from our research proved that everyone can own a building if government reduces the effect of economics and their policies on building constructions. The following recommendations were made that Kogi State government should look into how their policies and economics are having effects on building constructions such as tax, cost of transportation, bad roads, cost of building materials, price of fuel used in transporting building material and plants and so on. Also teams should be assign to ensure all this are put in place and strictly observed, it is expected of government to reduce economical and governmental policies that are affecting building construction so as to make it easier for everyone to own a home.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – i
Approval Page – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – iv

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Need of Study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3
1.2 Justification of the Study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3
1.3 Aim and Objectives – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3
1.4 Aims of the Research – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3
1.4.1 Objectives of the Research – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 4
1.5 Scope and limitation – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 4

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 5
2.1 Sequences of Construction – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 5
2.1.1 Government Policies on Housing – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 9
2.2 Evolution and Development of Nigeria Housing Policies
and Programmes – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 10
2.3 Economics of Building Analysis – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 11
2.4 Nature and Form of Construction Industry – – – – – – – – – 13

2.4.1 Quality Management in Construction Industry – – – – – – – 14
2.5 Essential of Construction in Economics – – – – – – – – – – 15
2.5.1 Cost Implication of Design Variables – – – – – – – – – – – 16
2.5.2 The Assessment of Building and Construction Resources – – – 20
2.5.3 Design Cost Criteria – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 21
2.5.4 Project Constructability – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 23
2.5.5 Industrial Evolution on Building and Civil Engineering
Organization – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 25
2.5.6 Land Use, Land Planning, Economics Aspects of Land Planning,
Land Value Determinants, Land Ownership, Advantages
and Disadvantages of Ownership – – – – – – – – – – – – – 26
2.7 Construction Resources, Trade Union, and Government – – – – 30
2.7.1 Sources of Construction Organization Finance – – – – – – – – 30
2.8 Financing of Major Project – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 31
2.8.1 Type of Finance – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 33
2.8.2 Trade Union and Associations – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 33
2.8.3 Functions of Trade Union – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 34
2.9 Effects of Government Actions on the Construction
Organization – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 36
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Research Methodology – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 39
3.1 Research Population and Sample- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 39
3.2 Research Design and Approach – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 40
3.3 Method of Data Collection – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 40
3.4 Administration of Instruments – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 42
3.5 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 42

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 43
4.1 Data Presentation – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 43
4.2 Data Analysis – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 43
4.3 Test of Hypothesis – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 44
4.4 Discussion and Findings – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 50

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 51
5.1 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 51
5.2 Recommendation – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -52
Reference – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -53
Questionnaire 55

 

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ANALYSIS OF FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO DELAY IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION PROJECT {CASE STUDY OF OKEHI LOCAL GOVERNMENT}

ANALYSIS OF FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO DELAY IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION PROJECT
{CASE STUDY OF OKEHI LOCAL GOVERNMENT}


NUMBERS PAGES: 60         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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INTRODUCTION
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The construction industry occupies a focal position in a nation economy. It is an essential contribution to the process of development. It is a sub-sector of the economy that creates basic infrastructures needed to accommodate of all other sectors. Olalooku (1987) state that in Nigeria, the construction industry contributes about 5% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Kazie (1987) affirmed that it constitute about 50% of Nigerian government expenditures. The construction industry is crucial in national development.
The two major factors normally considered from inception of a project are cost and completion period. According to Chan and kumaraswamy (1995), completion of project on time is an indication of an efficient and effective construction management. They further started that a project completed on time within budget and to the specified quality is considered successful.
Construction industry in Nigeria is faced with a lot of problems, among which is delay in project execution. Delay in the execution of building projects has been found to be a major setback in the construction industry in Nigeria. Based on the crucial position of the construction industry in the nation’s economy; it becomes necessary to improve efficiently in terms of productivity and management of this section. For the owner, delay means that the asset cannot be used when intended, causing alternative accommodation costs to be incurred or delay receiving income from the assets costs of financing the project could increase, and depending upon the contractual allocation of risk and the events causing the delay, the delay could give rise to claims by the contractor.
For the contractor, a delay means an increase in overheads, such as site staff and facilities, potential liabilies to the supply chain and depending on the reason for the delay, it can mean a liability for delay damages to the owner. The delayed recovery of payments and tie up of resources in the project can also created cash flow problems and the risk of insolvency (Morris, 2007).
For investment purpose; delay in a project execution is a major problem. This is because every purchase of real property is an investment and the essential nature of an investment is the release of capital sum in return for income to be received over a period of time. There has been a trend in recent years for client to include in construction contract liquidated damages.
Construction loans attract a very high rate of interest and as a results construction project ought not to be delayed for even one day. This is because delay has made contractors to pay more in retaining items such as plants and equipments on site, and salaries of key staff on site.
1.1 PROBLEM OF THE STUDY
The problem of project delay is a fact that occurs mostly in building construction project. Delay are always measure as expensive to all parties concerned in the projects and very often it will result in clash, claims, total desertion and much difficulties for feasibility and it slow the growth of building construction firm. The most common problem of delay in building project are natural disaster or force majeure e.g earthquake, flood and some other problem like financial and payment problem, improper planning, poor site management, insufficient experience etc These problem lead to the need of the study.
1.2 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
In becomes vital to improve efficiently in terms of productivity, good planning, selecting sound and experience contractor and proper management of any building construction project so as to complete the project within the stipulated time.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.3.1 AIM OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to identify the causes and the effect of delay in building construction projects and to suggest possible solutions of eradicating or minimizing them.
1.3.2 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The specific objectives of this study are;
I. To identify the major causes of delay in building construction project
II. To evaluate the effect of delay on construction project.
III. To examine the strategies for improving project delivery base on the finding of this study.
1.4 METHODOLOGY
In order to achieve the objectives of this study, the work was pursued through the following;
1.4.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
Relevant literature were reviewed from textbook, journal, past project, internet material etc so as to articulate existing knowledge on causes of delays in building project.
1.4.2 FIELD SURVEY
Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire as the instrument of the study to professional in construction firm. The questionnaires consist of section A and B. section A was use to generate data on respondents profile while section B was to generate data on causes of delay in building construction projects.
1.4.3 DATA ANALYSIS
Data analyses were undertaken using descriptive. Table, means, percentages, likert scale frequency were used to express the statistical result.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study focused on the causes of delay in building project and also to suggest the ways to prevent or reduce them. The study covered a selected building construction firm and some individual in Okehi, Kogi state. Also, the study was limited to only building construction project

 

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ROUTE (ENGINEERING) SURVEYING OF THE MAJOR ROAD WITH KOGI STATE POLYTECHNIC, LOKOJA (MAIN CAMPUS)

ROUTE (ENGINEERING) SURVEYING OF THE MAJOR ROAD WITH KOGI STATE POLYTECHNIC, LOKOJA (MAIN CAMPUS)


NUMBERS PAGES: 60         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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                                                                          ABSTRACT
The aim of this project is to carry out a route survey of major roads within Kogi State Polytechnic main campus Lokoja. The execution involves three exercises which involves total station traversing, longitudinal profile leveling and cross sectional leveling. The NIKO DT-352 total station (coordinate mode) was used to acquire cross sectional and longitudinal sectioning of the route. The result proved the potency of the method in acquiring data for route survey. After carrying out all this, the data was used to product plans showing the oriented route of the study areas i.e the longitudinal and cross sectional line.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page . . . . . . . . i
Approval page . . . . . . . . ii
Dedication . . . . . . . . iii
Acknowledgement . . . . . . . iv
Abstract . . . . . . . . v
Table of contents . . . . . . . v
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Background . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Statement of the problem . . . . . . 1
1.3 Aims and objectives . . . . . . 2
1.3.1 Aims . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3.2 Objectives . . . . . . . . 2
1.4 Study area . . . . . . . . 2
1.5 Scope of work . . . . . . . . 3
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature review . . . . . . . 4
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Methodology . . . . . . . . 7
3.1 Reconnaissance . . . . . . . 7
3.1.1 Office Reconnaissance . . . . . . 7
3.1.2 Field Reconnaissance . . . . . . . 9
3.2 Instrumentation . . . . . . . 9
3.3 Personnel . . . . . . . . 9
3.4 In-situ check . . . . . . . . 10
3.5 Data acquisition using total station . . . . . 12
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Data Processing and analysis
4.1 Software used
4.1.1 Microsoft excel
4.1.2 Auto card
4.2 Plotting the profile
4.2.1 Alignment
4.3 Joining point
4.4 Setting of terrain
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Summary
5.1 Problem encountered
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendations

 

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THE EFFECTS OF SLUM ON RENTAL PROPERTY VALUES

THE EFFECTS OF SLUM ON RENTAL PROPERTY VALUES


NUMBERS PAGES: 68         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to historical accounts (Leadership Newspaper), Asata, Coal camp, New market, Ogui urban including Obiagu areas of the city belongs to Ogui Nike people. But during the colonial era, the white men started developing parts of the land owned by the Ogui Nike people. That explains why Obiagu is presently inhabited by people from almost the five south east states namely; Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Imo and even the present day Enugu state.
Also a portion of Obiagu was then inhabited by the Hausa community, who came to the city as either cattle dealers or artisans. But following the events leading to the outbreak of the Nigeria Biafra war in 1967, a good number of Hausa men living in the area left for their different states in the north and never returned to the area, then the community was taken over by Nigerians from other ethnic groups, particularly Igbo, yet it still answer “Ama Hausa” [house of Hausa community], but has refused to shed its toga of a ghetto. When police or other security agencies are looking for suspected criminals, they usually gear their search light on obiagu, because of the belief that it is a criminal infested area (Ubani, 2012).

Most housing decay and deterioration comes in various forms and their existence is more evident in densely populated parts of the city. Some of the characteristics of slum include inadequate and deficient facilities obsolete buildings, filthy environment, etc. Much concern was been shown about the problems of the slum areas particularly on the level of decay exhibited by such areas and the plight of the low income households which dwell in them, this put lives and health of the residents in danger.
Obiagu experienced a large rapid population growth because of the influx of people from different part of the east as a result of the development from the colonial era, hence houses constructed of hands materials sprang up all over the settlement. Thus, the area is crowded with poor housing structures most disorderly located. The settlement has now grown and developed in an unplanned manner resulting in the deterioration of the values of the property and social status of the estate environment.
Therefore, the main aim of the study is to examine the effects of slum on rental property values in Obiagu.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Obiagu is characterized by slum, where the structure are blighted, high level of occupancy mostly low income group, over crowding, under supply of public amenities, bad roads, this is the basis for this research work, trying to examine the effects of slum on the values of property, located their and also to show or establish that slum development is the major set back in urban growth/development.
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of the study is to examine the effects of slum on rental property values in Obiagu. To achieve this aim, the following objectives were raised, they are:
a. To identify the causes and effects of slum on rental property values in the study area.
b. To establish the negative and positive effects of slum on rental property values in the study area.
c. To establish whether slum environment makes investment in real estate and property market transactions, a viable venture.
d. To then recommend the best and possible strategy towards eradicating the slum of obiagu area and hence create a suitable environment that will enhance the property value in the areas.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
In spite to identify, the research problem earlier stated, some questions have been raised by the researcher; it is believed that when right answers are provided for these questions it will lead to the achievement of the objectives of the study.
The questions are as follows:
1. What are the causes and effects of slum on rental property values in Obiagu?
2. Are there any negative and positive impacts of slum on rental property values?
3. Will investment in real estate and property market transactions in Obiagu be a viable venture?
1.5 THEORETICAL FOUNDATION OF THE STUDY
This research is based on the theory of the highest and best use of land. Highest and best use abdicates the application of land in order to gain maximum benefit not only to their owners but the society at large. Obiagu area has not been put to its highest and best use and as such resulted to slum in the area. That is to say, putting land into best use gives room for development. This calls for significance of their research.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study tends to identify the nature of slum in the study area, possible causes and effects on rental values of properties in the area in order to aid relevant authorities to tackle the problem and enhance benefits of real estate property market in the area.
There are many causes of slum which includes indiscriminate development of properties, improper disposal of waste etc. The government and its agencies have not paid much attention to it as a result of insufficient information available to them. This research will increase the interest of government officials on the issue and if the recommendations are adhered to, it will go a long way to eradicate slum in the study area and enhance development and real estate investment.

1.7 SCOPES OF STUDY
This study is restricted to the development of slum in obiagu. The investigation will consider the environmental, social, economic demographic, transportation, infrastructural and housing amenities conditions relevant to enhance estate settings as well as property values.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Limitations of this study include time, financial constraint, lack of sufficient relevant data which the research would have used to give a sufficiently new approach to this form of study.
1.9 OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY
The study starts with an introductory chapter on the research problems and other related issues. Chapter two dwells on literature review, throwing more lights on slum, concept of slum, types of slum, attitudes of slum, causes of blight and factors leading to slum formation types of slum, roles of slum, history of slum etc.
Chapter three talks about the research methodology research method and design, sources of data, collection and instrument for data analysis.
Chapter four deals with data presentation and analysis while chapter five deals with the findings, recommendations and conclusion.

 

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