CAUSES OF BUILDING COLLAPSE AND ITS PREVENTION (A CASE STUDY OF OWORO HOUSING ESTATE KOGI STATE)

CAUSES OF BUILDING COLLAPSE AND ITS PREVENTION
(A CASE STUDY OF OWORO HOUSING ESTATE KOGI STATE)


NUMBERS PAGES: 40         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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                                                                             ABSTRACT
Many recent collapse of building occurred both during construction and following occupancy. Such failures have received professional and public attention due to the major losses of life and property. Five recommendations resulting from the Engineering Foundations Conference “Building Structural Failures – their cause and prevention”. The recommendations addresses structural integrity, life safety insurance, peer review, definition and assignment of responsibility, and unified risk insurance. The nature and magnitude of the problem, the design process, the construction process, legal implications and the regulatory process are covered.
On this fact, This research was fashion on how to prevent and deal with collapse causes in building. The method used in sourcing the material used for the collection of data was orally interview with 30 professionals in the research field, e.g. builders, architects, quantity surveyor, structural engineers etc. the answers received was presented and analyzed using statistical demographical tools. This research concludes that, foundation failure and faulty design among others are major causes of collapse in building. The research recommend that thorough inspection of sites should be done by professionals, before, during and after construction. client should engage professional and avoid quacks, Government on its own part should enforce policy on construction activity in the study area.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _i
Approval Page _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ii
Dedication_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ iii
Acknowledgement_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _iv
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1
1.1 background of the study_ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ 7
Aim and Objectives_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7
1.4 Aims of the Research_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7
1.4.1 Objectives of the Research _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7
1.5 Scope and limitation_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8
1.5.1 Scope_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8
1.5.2 Limitation_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8
1.6 Methodology_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8
1.6.1 Literature review_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8
1.6.2 Research design_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8
1.6.3 Data analysis_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 9
2.1 the complexity of the building_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 14
2.2 effect of building collapse in Nigeria_ _ _ _ _ _ 15
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 research methodology
3.1 research design_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 16
3.2 Fields Survey_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 22
3.3 Population of the Study_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 22
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 22
3.5 Method of data Analysis_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 23

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Data Presentation and Discussion_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 24
4.1 Data Presentation _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 24
4.2 Data Analysis _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 24

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 27
5.1 Conclusion _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 27
5.2 Recommendation _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 28
Reference

 

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THE EFFECTS OF GENERAL ECONOMY AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON HOUSING (A CASE STUDY OF LOKOJA KOGI STATE)

THE EFFECTS OF GENERAL ECONOMY AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON HOUSING
(A CASE STUDY OF LOKOJA KOGI STATE)


NUMBERS PAGES: 60         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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                                                                           ABSTRACT
This research was carried out to examine how government policies and the economy of the nation are affecting organizations and individuals towards owning their own house(s) using Lokoja as a case study.
The researcher’s information relied on data collected through questionnaire, (50 questionnaires were issued out and 40 was received back), oral interview followed by note taking. Our findings show that the economy of Kogi state and the state government policies affect the citizens.
Based on this result, conclusion was drawn that general economics and government policies have crucial and negative effect on building constructions as it holds back majority of having a place to call their home. The result obtained from our research proved that everyone can own a building if government reduces the effect of economics and their policies on building constructions. The following recommendations were made that Kogi State government should look into how their policies and economics are having effects on building constructions such as tax, cost of transportation, bad roads, cost of building materials, price of fuel used in transporting building material and plants and so on. Also teams should be assign to ensure all this are put in place and strictly observed, it is expected of government to reduce economical and governmental policies that are affecting building construction so as to make it easier for everyone to own a home.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – i
Approval Page – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – iv

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Need of Study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3
1.2 Justification of the Study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3
1.3 Aim and Objectives – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3
1.4 Aims of the Research – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3
1.4.1 Objectives of the Research – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 4
1.5 Scope and limitation – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 4

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 5
2.1 Sequences of Construction – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 5
2.1.1 Government Policies on Housing – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 9
2.2 Evolution and Development of Nigeria Housing Policies
and Programmes – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 10
2.3 Economics of Building Analysis – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 11
2.4 Nature and Form of Construction Industry – – – – – – – – – 13

2.4.1 Quality Management in Construction Industry – – – – – – – 14
2.5 Essential of Construction in Economics – – – – – – – – – – 15
2.5.1 Cost Implication of Design Variables – – – – – – – – – – – 16
2.5.2 The Assessment of Building and Construction Resources – – – 20
2.5.3 Design Cost Criteria – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 21
2.5.4 Project Constructability – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 23
2.5.5 Industrial Evolution on Building and Civil Engineering
Organization – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 25
2.5.6 Land Use, Land Planning, Economics Aspects of Land Planning,
Land Value Determinants, Land Ownership, Advantages
and Disadvantages of Ownership – – – – – – – – – – – – – 26
2.7 Construction Resources, Trade Union, and Government – – – – 30
2.7.1 Sources of Construction Organization Finance – – – – – – – – 30
2.8 Financing of Major Project – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 31
2.8.1 Type of Finance – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 33
2.8.2 Trade Union and Associations – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 33
2.8.3 Functions of Trade Union – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 34
2.9 Effects of Government Actions on the Construction
Organization – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 36
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Research Methodology – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 39
3.1 Research Population and Sample- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 39
3.2 Research Design and Approach – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 40
3.3 Method of Data Collection – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 40
3.4 Administration of Instruments – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 42
3.5 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 42

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 43
4.1 Data Presentation – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 43
4.2 Data Analysis – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 43
4.3 Test of Hypothesis – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 44
4.4 Discussion and Findings – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 50

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 51
5.1 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 51
5.2 Recommendation – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -52
Reference – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -53
Questionnaire 55

 

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ANALYSIS OF FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO DELAY IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION PROJECT {CASE STUDY OF OKEHI LOCAL GOVERNMENT}

ANALYSIS OF FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO DELAY IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION PROJECT
{CASE STUDY OF OKEHI LOCAL GOVERNMENT}


NUMBERS PAGES: 60         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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INTRODUCTION
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The construction industry occupies a focal position in a nation economy. It is an essential contribution to the process of development. It is a sub-sector of the economy that creates basic infrastructures needed to accommodate of all other sectors. Olalooku (1987) state that in Nigeria, the construction industry contributes about 5% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Kazie (1987) affirmed that it constitute about 50% of Nigerian government expenditures. The construction industry is crucial in national development.
The two major factors normally considered from inception of a project are cost and completion period. According to Chan and kumaraswamy (1995), completion of project on time is an indication of an efficient and effective construction management. They further started that a project completed on time within budget and to the specified quality is considered successful.
Construction industry in Nigeria is faced with a lot of problems, among which is delay in project execution. Delay in the execution of building projects has been found to be a major setback in the construction industry in Nigeria. Based on the crucial position of the construction industry in the nation’s economy; it becomes necessary to improve efficiently in terms of productivity and management of this section. For the owner, delay means that the asset cannot be used when intended, causing alternative accommodation costs to be incurred or delay receiving income from the assets costs of financing the project could increase, and depending upon the contractual allocation of risk and the events causing the delay, the delay could give rise to claims by the contractor.
For the contractor, a delay means an increase in overheads, such as site staff and facilities, potential liabilies to the supply chain and depending on the reason for the delay, it can mean a liability for delay damages to the owner. The delayed recovery of payments and tie up of resources in the project can also created cash flow problems and the risk of insolvency (Morris, 2007).
For investment purpose; delay in a project execution is a major problem. This is because every purchase of real property is an investment and the essential nature of an investment is the release of capital sum in return for income to be received over a period of time. There has been a trend in recent years for client to include in construction contract liquidated damages.
Construction loans attract a very high rate of interest and as a results construction project ought not to be delayed for even one day. This is because delay has made contractors to pay more in retaining items such as plants and equipments on site, and salaries of key staff on site.
1.1 PROBLEM OF THE STUDY
The problem of project delay is a fact that occurs mostly in building construction project. Delay are always measure as expensive to all parties concerned in the projects and very often it will result in clash, claims, total desertion and much difficulties for feasibility and it slow the growth of building construction firm. The most common problem of delay in building project are natural disaster or force majeure e.g earthquake, flood and some other problem like financial and payment problem, improper planning, poor site management, insufficient experience etc These problem lead to the need of the study.
1.2 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
In becomes vital to improve efficiently in terms of productivity, good planning, selecting sound and experience contractor and proper management of any building construction project so as to complete the project within the stipulated time.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.3.1 AIM OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to identify the causes and the effect of delay in building construction projects and to suggest possible solutions of eradicating or minimizing them.
1.3.2 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The specific objectives of this study are;
I. To identify the major causes of delay in building construction project
II. To evaluate the effect of delay on construction project.
III. To examine the strategies for improving project delivery base on the finding of this study.
1.4 METHODOLOGY
In order to achieve the objectives of this study, the work was pursued through the following;
1.4.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
Relevant literature were reviewed from textbook, journal, past project, internet material etc so as to articulate existing knowledge on causes of delays in building project.
1.4.2 FIELD SURVEY
Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire as the instrument of the study to professional in construction firm. The questionnaires consist of section A and B. section A was use to generate data on respondents profile while section B was to generate data on causes of delay in building construction projects.
1.4.3 DATA ANALYSIS
Data analyses were undertaken using descriptive. Table, means, percentages, likert scale frequency were used to express the statistical result.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study focused on the causes of delay in building project and also to suggest the ways to prevent or reduce them. The study covered a selected building construction firm and some individual in Okehi, Kogi state. Also, the study was limited to only building construction project

 

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ROUTE (ENGINEERING) SURVEYING OF THE MAJOR ROAD WITH KOGI STATE POLYTECHNIC, LOKOJA (MAIN CAMPUS)

ROUTE (ENGINEERING) SURVEYING OF THE MAJOR ROAD WITH KOGI STATE POLYTECHNIC, LOKOJA (MAIN CAMPUS)


NUMBERS PAGES: 60         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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                                                                          ABSTRACT
The aim of this project is to carry out a route survey of major roads within Kogi State Polytechnic main campus Lokoja. The execution involves three exercises which involves total station traversing, longitudinal profile leveling and cross sectional leveling. The NIKO DT-352 total station (coordinate mode) was used to acquire cross sectional and longitudinal sectioning of the route. The result proved the potency of the method in acquiring data for route survey. After carrying out all this, the data was used to product plans showing the oriented route of the study areas i.e the longitudinal and cross sectional line.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page . . . . . . . . i
Approval page . . . . . . . . ii
Dedication . . . . . . . . iii
Acknowledgement . . . . . . . iv
Abstract . . . . . . . . v
Table of contents . . . . . . . v
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Background . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Statement of the problem . . . . . . 1
1.3 Aims and objectives . . . . . . 2
1.3.1 Aims . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3.2 Objectives . . . . . . . . 2
1.4 Study area . . . . . . . . 2
1.5 Scope of work . . . . . . . . 3
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature review . . . . . . . 4
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Methodology . . . . . . . . 7
3.1 Reconnaissance . . . . . . . 7
3.1.1 Office Reconnaissance . . . . . . 7
3.1.2 Field Reconnaissance . . . . . . . 9
3.2 Instrumentation . . . . . . . 9
3.3 Personnel . . . . . . . . 9
3.4 In-situ check . . . . . . . . 10
3.5 Data acquisition using total station . . . . . 12
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Data Processing and analysis
4.1 Software used
4.1.1 Microsoft excel
4.1.2 Auto card
4.2 Plotting the profile
4.2.1 Alignment
4.3 Joining point
4.4 Setting of terrain
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Summary
5.1 Problem encountered
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendations

 

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THE EFFECTS OF SLUM ON RENTAL PROPERTY VALUES

THE EFFECTS OF SLUM ON RENTAL PROPERTY VALUES


NUMBERS PAGES: 68         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to historical accounts (Leadership Newspaper), Asata, Coal camp, New market, Ogui urban including Obiagu areas of the city belongs to Ogui Nike people. But during the colonial era, the white men started developing parts of the land owned by the Ogui Nike people. That explains why Obiagu is presently inhabited by people from almost the five south east states namely; Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Imo and even the present day Enugu state.
Also a portion of Obiagu was then inhabited by the Hausa community, who came to the city as either cattle dealers or artisans. But following the events leading to the outbreak of the Nigeria Biafra war in 1967, a good number of Hausa men living in the area left for their different states in the north and never returned to the area, then the community was taken over by Nigerians from other ethnic groups, particularly Igbo, yet it still answer “Ama Hausa” [house of Hausa community], but has refused to shed its toga of a ghetto. When police or other security agencies are looking for suspected criminals, they usually gear their search light on obiagu, because of the belief that it is a criminal infested area (Ubani, 2012).

Most housing decay and deterioration comes in various forms and their existence is more evident in densely populated parts of the city. Some of the characteristics of slum include inadequate and deficient facilities obsolete buildings, filthy environment, etc. Much concern was been shown about the problems of the slum areas particularly on the level of decay exhibited by such areas and the plight of the low income households which dwell in them, this put lives and health of the residents in danger.
Obiagu experienced a large rapid population growth because of the influx of people from different part of the east as a result of the development from the colonial era, hence houses constructed of hands materials sprang up all over the settlement. Thus, the area is crowded with poor housing structures most disorderly located. The settlement has now grown and developed in an unplanned manner resulting in the deterioration of the values of the property and social status of the estate environment.
Therefore, the main aim of the study is to examine the effects of slum on rental property values in Obiagu.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Obiagu is characterized by slum, where the structure are blighted, high level of occupancy mostly low income group, over crowding, under supply of public amenities, bad roads, this is the basis for this research work, trying to examine the effects of slum on the values of property, located their and also to show or establish that slum development is the major set back in urban growth/development.
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of the study is to examine the effects of slum on rental property values in Obiagu. To achieve this aim, the following objectives were raised, they are:
a. To identify the causes and effects of slum on rental property values in the study area.
b. To establish the negative and positive effects of slum on rental property values in the study area.
c. To establish whether slum environment makes investment in real estate and property market transactions, a viable venture.
d. To then recommend the best and possible strategy towards eradicating the slum of obiagu area and hence create a suitable environment that will enhance the property value in the areas.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
In spite to identify, the research problem earlier stated, some questions have been raised by the researcher; it is believed that when right answers are provided for these questions it will lead to the achievement of the objectives of the study.
The questions are as follows:
1. What are the causes and effects of slum on rental property values in Obiagu?
2. Are there any negative and positive impacts of slum on rental property values?
3. Will investment in real estate and property market transactions in Obiagu be a viable venture?
1.5 THEORETICAL FOUNDATION OF THE STUDY
This research is based on the theory of the highest and best use of land. Highest and best use abdicates the application of land in order to gain maximum benefit not only to their owners but the society at large. Obiagu area has not been put to its highest and best use and as such resulted to slum in the area. That is to say, putting land into best use gives room for development. This calls for significance of their research.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study tends to identify the nature of slum in the study area, possible causes and effects on rental values of properties in the area in order to aid relevant authorities to tackle the problem and enhance benefits of real estate property market in the area.
There are many causes of slum which includes indiscriminate development of properties, improper disposal of waste etc. The government and its agencies have not paid much attention to it as a result of insufficient information available to them. This research will increase the interest of government officials on the issue and if the recommendations are adhered to, it will go a long way to eradicate slum in the study area and enhance development and real estate investment.

1.7 SCOPES OF STUDY
This study is restricted to the development of slum in obiagu. The investigation will consider the environmental, social, economic demographic, transportation, infrastructural and housing amenities conditions relevant to enhance estate settings as well as property values.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Limitations of this study include time, financial constraint, lack of sufficient relevant data which the research would have used to give a sufficiently new approach to this form of study.
1.9 OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY
The study starts with an introductory chapter on the research problems and other related issues. Chapter two dwells on literature review, throwing more lights on slum, concept of slum, types of slum, attitudes of slum, causes of blight and factors leading to slum formation types of slum, roles of slum, history of slum etc.
Chapter three talks about the research methodology research method and design, sources of data, collection and instrument for data analysis.
Chapter four deals with data presentation and analysis while chapter five deals with the findings, recommendations and conclusion.

 

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A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RENTAL VARIATION IN RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL PROPERTIES IN NIGERIA

A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RENTAL VARIATION IN RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL PROPERTIES IN NIGERIA


NUMBERS PAGES: 68         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Shelter is a basic necessity in life. An individual can satisfy this need by either occupying his own (owner’s occupier) property or renting another person’s property. In our traditional society, the need for shelter is mainly met through the first alternative that is owner occupation. With the emergency of urban centers’, the situation has changed. Many people are no longer about to own property because of the difficulty in the acquisition of land and the high cost of building construction. Therefore, they are left with the alternative of renting other people’s properties in order to satisfy their need for shelter. Consequently two classes of urban resident have emerged, the landlord and the tenant under this arrangement the tenant pays to the landlord a certain amount of money in consideration for his use of the landlord’s house. This amount is popularly known as rent.
During the civil war the Nigeria that is 1966 to 1970 many landed properties in the urban areas of the former Eastern Region of Nigeria, including Enugu, were destroyed. Consequently, there was a sharp decline in the supply of landed properties after the war. Furthermore, the post – civil war period witnessed an unprecedented number of the rural population trooping into the urban centres due to the conspicuous prosperity brought about in the urban area by the oil boom. This resulted to high demand for the existing limited supply of landed properties. Consequent upon these, rent for landed properties increased considerably.
This trend has continued with the effect that “the average worker is paying 30% to 40% of his salary as rent” (Oshadiya, 1985). Thus the increase in rents on the properties has led to the variation of rent on properties.
In urban area due to location advantage (for example prime location) which some properties offer above others for commercial and residential uses, rent tend to very on account of the type of use which a property can offer.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Location of economic properties has been a difficult concept to understand. Although the primary objective of commercial properties is the derivation of financial gains, while that of residential properties is for habitation, shelter and comfort, the demand for land is a reflection of the profitability or utility derivable from its use. The greater the benefit to be obtained from a particular use, the higher the rent that the user will be willing to pay for it.
There appear to be wide ranging differences in the levels of rent passing on residential and commercial properties in Enugu and Nigeria generally.
This research is seeking among other things to find out the causes of rental variation in commercial and residential properties in Nigeria, Ogui New Layout and G.R.A as a case study.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main aim of this research is to examine the reasons for rental variation in commercial and residential properties with a view to provide tool to be used in catching issues related to rent on these properties in Enugu and Nigeria generally.
To achieve the standard goal, the following objectives are to be pursued;
i) To identify the level of rents for commercial and residential properties in the study area.
ii) To ascertain and examine the factors influencing the rents being commanded by these properties.
iii) To determine or examine whether the income of prospective buyers/tenants affect their decision to acquire properties.
iv) To ascertain if there is disparity in rental values for residential and commercial properties in the study area.
v) To find out the rate of demand between commercial and residential properties?

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. What is the level of rent for commercial and residential properties in Ogui New Layout and G.R.A respectively between years 2002-2004?
ii. What are the factors influencing rents passing on those commercial and residential properties.
iii. Does the income of prospective buyers/tenants affect their decision to acquire properties?
iv. Is there any disparity in the rental value or rent passing on residential and commercial properties in the study area?
v. Amongst properties put for Commercial and Residential use, which is on a higher rate of demand?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The finding of this study will be of benefit to the following groups;
Firstly, tenants who are charged rents based on different reasons, especially when the properties are of the same nature (physically). This will again enable the investors not only to understand how occupier thinks, but also why and the things they consider before acquiring properties for certain uses.
Secondly, the generality of the public can now understand the reason why the rents being commanded by these properties have to differ.

Lastly, this research work will help to determine the factors influencing, commercial and residential properties which is an essential pre-requisite to successful development as well as stimulating interest in the students to carryout out further research on the topic.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study covers a period of three years (2002 to 2004) and it is restricted to selected properties (Residential and commercial) comprising blocks of flat and tenements in Ogui New Layout and G.R.A, Enugu.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Expectedly, this work met with some hindrances during the stage of data collection. The issue of rent passing on a property (residential or commercial) is usually regarded as classified information, which is not easily disclosed to people particularly researchers. This was largely suspected to be the reason why some Estate surveyors, property owners, tenants, Estate firms, property companies and even Estate agents who were approached through oral interviews, discussions and visitations found it rather difficult to reveal essential information despite every explanation that the exercise is strictly for academic purposes, a good number of them, still nursed the fear that it may be for property rating and taxation purposes.
There was also the problem of logistics occasioned by the society. The researcher worked with a very light budget throughout the period of study as the frequent and repeated visits to relevant persons and offices entailed quite some money. Moreover, also recall that some of the interview respondents were not co-operative as they kept on playing to the gallery as a means of avoiding supplying the required information. On a general note however, the researcher ensured that these bottle – necks never affected the findings of this study since the success far outweighed the hindrances as enumerated.
1.8 OVERVIEW OF STUDY
Chapter one treats the introduction of the project work. Chapter two deals with literature review, chapter three treats the research methodology, chapter four is on data presentation, analysis and interpretation and chapter five deals with findings recommendation and conclusion.
1.9 DEFINITION OF RELEVANT TERMS
RENT: The universal dictionary of the English language (1971) defined rent as the regular payment made for the use of land or buildings that belongs to someone else. The Economist defined rent as “the revenue from land resources that is equal to the value of its marginal services rendered in a productive process” (Richfield, 1974).
In summary therefore, the word rent is that fixed periodic payment made by a tenant to his landlord for the exclusive possession and use of leased property.
PROPERTIES: According to the High Court, the Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court, property is the right to possession, enjoyment and disposition of all rights and things subject to ownership.
Property is therefore a legal right expressing the relationship between a person, the owner and his possession of the thing owned.
A RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY: according to Kilpatrick (1999) is a land use in which housing predominates, as opposed to industrial and commercial areas. Housing may vary significantly between, and through, residential areas. These include single-family housing, multi-family residential, or mobile homes.
COMMERCIAL PROPERTY: According to Malys (2012), this refers to buildings or land intended to generate a profit, either from capital gain or rental income. It includes office buildings, industrial property, medical centers, hotels, malls, retail stores, farm land, multifamily housing buildings, warehouses, and garages. In many states, residential property containing more than a certain number of units qualifies as commercial property for borrowing and tax purposes.

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PROBLEM OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL (THE CASE STUDY OF FELELE METROPOLITAN AREA)

PROBLEM OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL
(THE CASE STUDY OF FELELE METROPOLITAN AREA)


NUMBERS PAGES: 71         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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                                                                         ABSTRACT
The study aimed ensuring a clean environment in the felele Metropolis. It analysed the
underlying factors affecting effective solid waste management in the metropolis and
suggested possible measures to tackle the problem. The research gathered data from two
main sources namely: secondary and primary sources. The three main techniques employed
in gathering the primary data were: preliminary field investigation, questionnaire survey and
face-to-face interview. The following key findings were established to be the factors
affecting effective solid waste management in the Metropolis. These are:

-Inadequate skip supply for storing waste.
-Lack of routine collection of waste.
-Poor methods of waste management.
-Inadequate resources for waste management institutions to effectively collect the
waste generated.
In the light of these problems enumerated above, the research recommended the adequate
supply of skips, regular collection of waste, use of Integrated Solid Waste Management
(ISWM) Model, proper management of the landfill and adequate sourcing of the waste
management institutions.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Content
Page
Title Page……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… i
Declaration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ii
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. iii
Dedication…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. iv
Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………………………………………….. v
Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………………………………….. vi
List of Tables……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………..viii
List of Figures……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ix
List of Abbreviations/Acronyms……………………………………………………………………………. x
CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study…………………………………………………………………………………. 1
1.2 Problem Statement…………………………………………………………………………………………..2
1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Study……………………………………………………………………. 3
1.4 Scope of Study………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
1.5 Justification of Study……………………………………………………………………………………… 6
1.6 Chapter Organisation……………………………………………………………………………………… 6
1.7 Limitations of Study……………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
1.8 Research Direction………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
CHAPTER TWO: SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
2.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
2.2 Waste………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8
2.3 Solid Waste Management ………………………………………………………………………………… 11
2.4 Early Practices of Solid Waste Management…………………………………………………….. 14
2.5 Contemporary Methods of Managing Solid Waste……………………………………………. 15
2.6 Problems of Managing Solid Waste………………………………………………………………….. 19
2.7 Solid Waste Management in nigeria………………………………………………………………….. 21
2.6. Key Issues…………………………………………………………………………… 29
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
3.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31
3.2 Secondary Data………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31
3.3 Primary Data Collection…………………………………………………………………………………. 31
3.4 Data Processing and Analysis…………………………………………………………………………… 37
3.5 Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43
4.2 Waste Management Plan of TAMA………………………………………………………………… 43
4.3 Waste Management in TAMA………………………………………………………………………….. 43
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND
CONCLUSION
5.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62
5.2 Key Findings……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 62
5.3 Recommendations …………………………………………………………………………………………… 64
5.4 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 66
References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 68
Appendices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 71
vii

 

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