THE CHALLENGES FACING FEMALE ADMINISTRATORS OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS IN THE NIGERIAN METROPOLIS

THE CHALLENGES FACING FEMALE ADMINISTRATORS OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS IN THE NIGERIAN METROPOLIS


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ABSTRACT

The study was to find out the challenges confronting women in educational administration in the country, particularly in the Greater Nigeria Region, where a sizeable number of them are found.
It sought to investigate whether (i) female administrators in education are discriminated against, (ii) how they do manage their career and families and (iii) whether there are any effective support services provided for them to enhance their effectiveness, among others.
The study was necessary due to the high level of concern for the issue of women in leadership positions, in recent times, in all fields, including education interviews, questionnaires and examination of official documents were used as the main instrument to collect data. Data was then subjected to both quantitative and non-quantitative analysis. One finding is that women face a myriad of challenges in managing schools that are entrusted to them.
Among such challenges are abject discriminations based on traditional norms and practices or gender/stereotyped roles for women continue to militate against female administrators in education.
It was recommended that gender advocacy groups such as churches and statutory bodies carry out seminars, workshops and other public awareness, campaigns to help eliminate the discrimination against women. Also special support mechanisms should be put in place to cushion women in leadership positions especially in education to enhance their effectiveness; this can be done in areas, such as provision of accommodation around duty point and provision of in-service training among others.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Pages
DECLARATION
ABSTRACT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
DEDICATION
LIST OF TABLES
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Delimitation
1.7 Limitations
1.8 Definition of Terms
1.9 Organization of the Study
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Discrimination against Female Administrators
2.3 Female Administrators Management of both Family and Career
2.4 Female Administrators and Role Conflicts
2.5 Female Administrators and Support Services
2.6 Female Administrators, Leadership Qualities and Styles
2.7 Leadership Concept
2.8 Leadership Qualities
2.9 Leadership Styles
2.10 The Expected Roles of the Head by Nigeria Education Service (GES)
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.5 Development of the Instruments
3.6 Interview Guide for Female Administrators
3.7 Questionnaire for Assistants Female Administrators
3.8 Pre-Testing of Research Instruments
3.9 Procedure for Data Collection
3.10 Data Analysis Plan
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 The Results
4.2 findings
4.3 data analysis
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 SUMMARY,
5.2 CONCLUSIONS
5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS
5.4 References

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EFFECTIVE TAX ADMINISTRATION AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA. (A CASE STUDY OF ANKPA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)

EFFECTIVE TAX ADMINISTRATION AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA.
(A CASE STUDY OF ANKPA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)


NUMBERS PAGES: 90        RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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ABSTRACT

The level of revenue generated in the state has been in a declining form due to poor administration and collections of taxes and lack of proper return of accounts. These are the negative effects that affect government revenue generation which are targeted to meet her basic functions like provision of basic amenities for her citizenry in the state. The aim of this research study is to evaluate the Effective Tax Administration and Local Government Development in Nigeria. The research design adopted in this study was survey research method. Primary and secondary sources of data were used in collecting information which was analyzed using simple percentages and hypothesis tested using chi – square statistical method at 0.05 level of significant for validity and to make decisions. Findings show that there was rampant incidence of tax evasion and avoidance in the state, and the tax administration in ANKPA is inadequate, not effective and not efficiently managed thus: inadequate staff and facilities also hinder tax administration and collection. The researcher, in the final analysis drew a lasting conclusion, some of which are:- the apathy of kogi state people towards payment of tax could be reduced by involving them in the decision making of tax administration, collection and utilization of the tax revenue. The environment should be made better by both the government and its agencies. The staff of the SBIR kogi should be well remunerated and ensure adequate administration of tax laws in accordance with the laid down rules and regulations.

TABLE OF CONTENT
COVER PAGE————————————————————————
TITLE PAGE————————————————————————-i
APPROVAL PAGE——————————————————————ii
DEDICATION———————————————————————–iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT———————————————————–iv
ABSTRACT————————————————————————–v
TABLE OF CONTENT————————————————————-vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY———————————————1
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM —————————————–8
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY ————————————————9
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION —————————————————–10
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS——————————————–12
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY——————————————-12
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY—————————————————–13
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY———————————————14
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS—————————————————15

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 LOCAL GOVERNMENT: NATURE AND PURPOSE —————————-17
2.2 EFFECTIVE REVENUE GENERATION THROUGH TAXES —————-20
2.3 AN OVERVIEW THE ORIGIN OF TAXATION ———————————24
2.4 TAX ADMINISTRATION AND OBJECTIVES ——————————-27
2.5 CLASSIFICATION OF TAXES ——————————————–31
2.6 PROBLEM OF ADMINISTRATION IN THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT —–34
2.7 PROSPECT OF EFFECTIVE TAX ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA ———-46

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 INTRODUCTION ——————————————— 63
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN ——————————————— 63
3.3 AREA OF THE STUDY——————————————— 63
3.4 POPULATION OF THE STUDY ——————————————— 63
3.5 SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION——————————————– 64
3.6 DETERMINATION OF SAMPLE SIZE ———————————————65
3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS ——————————————— 66
3.8 VALIDITY TEST ——————————————— 68
3.9 RELIABILITY TEST ——————————————— 68
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATE
4.1 DATA PRESENTATION————————————————————-70
4.2 DATA ANALYSIS ——————————————————————-70

4.3 TEST OF HYPOTHESIS ————————————————————-83
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS , CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS——————————————————–92
5.2 CONCLUSION——– ————————————————————–94
5.3 RECOMMENDATION ————————————————————-96
BIBLIOGRAPHY————————————————————————-98
APPENDICES—————————————————————————–100

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PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF ESTABLISHING SMALL SCALE ENTERPRISES IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED BAKERIES IN ENUGU URBAN)

PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF ESTABLISHING SMALL SCALE ENTERPRISES IN NIGERIA

(A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED BAKERIES IN ENUGU URBAN)


NUMBERS PAGES: 70        RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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ABSTRACT

It also paid attention to the foundling of the small-scale business in Nigeria. Whereas failure of the large-scale import department assembly to propel the country into a satisfactory course of industrialization necessitate the demagnification of strategy to embrace the promotion of small-scale enterprises achievement under the new strategy has not been adequate with expectations of the stated objectives which were economic growth and development through the mobilization of available local resources, employment generation and industrial dispersal as well as mitigation of rural urban migration. Out of a population of eighty drawn from the selected bakeries, sixty seven were selected as the sample size using statistical sample tools (Taro Yamani). A questionnaire was designed and distributed to elicit information from the sample population; also data was sourced through primary and secondary sources. These data collected were presented and analyzed by means of tables and percentages. The hypotheses adduced were tested using such tools as chi-square. It was observed that to achieve economic growth and development to use, such as increasing availability of credit by raising interest rate ceiling and permitting a “spread” that makes it worthwhile for banks to lend to small-scale business or by increasing the number and range of investment etc. problems of small-scale business will be a thing of the past.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCITION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The contribution of small –scale business in fostering economic growth and development has been well articulated in different areas of this study .the specific attention on them based on their expected impact and potential contribution on broad and diversified production base, as well as their accelerative effect in achieving macro objectives pertaining to full employment, income distribution and the development of local technology. They are particularly most conducive for diffusion of management skills and emulation of indigenous entrepreneurship overtime.
Small business provides financial opportunity and a chance to develop wealth. It is a place where creative, motivated individuals can use their talents and expertise to the fullest, because it provides satisfying careers and job opportunities and it’s also the back bone of the market economy of the word. Every big business starts as a small business, and it started with an entrepreneur (small business), who at first, earns little or no profit. It was the new ideas of small business that brought about Ekene Dili Chukwu Transport, the FAN Milk, Nnewi “Tokumbo” parts, and even the many commercial banks in Nigeria. Untried ideas become annulations that become concepts that changed the business world. And so it goes. Small business is the basis for the economic well being many developed nations including USA/Japan.
Entrepreneurship is what makes a small business successful. Entrepreneurship occurs when an individual develops a new venture, a new approach to an old business or idea, or a unique way of giving the market place a product or service by using resources in a new way under conditions of risk. Small business triumphs and entrepreneurship are closely related to it. It is difficult to separate them.
The unemployment situation in the country coupled with the new government instinctive towards easing social tensions among unemployed youths, through the programmed of the National Directorate of Employment (NDE), were intended to lure a lot of unemployed Nigerians, including graduates into self determination through self employment. Graduates and school leavers are now realizing that government and the established private companies are not ready to come to their aid directly, through paid employment due to the dividing state of the economy. Short of the alternatives, Nigerians including our graduates are therefore launching themselves into various small-scale business ventures, such as cottage soap and cosmetics production, fairing, restaurants, fast food, publishing, writing, block making, garri processing, food processing, refuse disposal, taxi driving, cleaning services, weaving, baking tailoring, advertising and other same business venture which depends mostly on local raw materials. The determination to succeed is also fast becoming the order of the day.
Government has been playing appreciative role in promoting the survival and growth of small-scale enterprise in recognition of them flexible and adaptive nature as well as their re-generative power in promoting economic growth and development. Government also encourages people to establish their own small business so as to reduce the problem of unemployment in the country and also reduce the problem of importation of goods, more so, to produce exportation products.
Government in believing that a dynamic and growing small manufacturing sub-sector can contribute significantly to the implementation of a wide range development effectives, has thus enunciated various policies to encourage their proliferation and make them veritable engines of growth and development. In the third and for the development plans and the on-going three years rolling plan, priority has been accorded industrialization with greater emphasis on small-scale enterprises. The basic activities of government policies as maintained in the monetary and fiscal policy measures, are to improve the financing and other supportive services of small-scale business by expanding and improving access to credit and infrastructural facilities, reducing their production costs, boosting their profitability, enhancing their survival and growth capacities as well as expanding their contributions to non-oil exports by making their products competitive in the export markets.
Hardly could any major industry succeed without the services of small-business enterprise. The major goals of any profit oriented business are to make profit. A company will make more profit if statistics its customers need better them the competitors. Therefore in the contribution of small-scale business, bakeries would produce what the customers want and by so doing they maximize profit and only bakeries that are effective and efficient can satisfy customer’s needs. In reality, it is possible to run a business without profit for a time, but it is not possible for to survive for one day without customers. Customers are the central theme of any business. Without a total commitment to them, contribution to economic growth and development will have limited and brief effects.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Bakery is in the production industry the quality of products rendered by our Bakeries have been attracting criticisms from people in all works of life. The civil servants, business men and the general public are all very critical of production of cookies like bread, chi-chin, cake, meat pie, boons etc. The complaints ranges from those of poor quality of products, poor packages, high prices, poor delivery, shortage of skilled manpower which affects productivity and restrain expansive the use of potassium bromated which National Agency for food and Drug Administration Commission (NAFDAC) banned for health purpose.
Most bakeries do not put their customers in the prime place as they supposed to be. There is now keen competition and to compete means to contribute to economic growth and development. Dickson (1971:4), agreed with this view when he said that small scale enterprises are ploughed by inadequacies and serious miss-uses of business records and business information. The problem of poor or wrong location of an industry affects its production. Such as nearness to raw materials, market, sources of power and access to supply of labour and transport facilities etc.
Government incentive in industries has previously directed to public investment neglecting private initiative. But a diversified and self-sufficient economy must take into consideration the importance of private sector in capital formation.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Based on the fact that one cannot build a house on a platter of gold without encountering one or two hassles here and there, so in the genesis and revelation of this work as the researcher encountered several problems the course of writing, which ranges from lack of time, financial and material constraints to the inability of reaching all members of the sample due to transport problems and even those reached tend not to render full co-operation thus the total number of people interviewed became smaller.
Other limitations which the researcher encountered in the course of writing are that some of questionnaires distributed to the respondents were not returned despite one or two reminders sent to them, while those that were delivered by hand were non-challantly filled. As such, there have been criticisms about the bakery industries in the way they render services to their customers. i.e. They do not see the customers as king lot in terms of national output and employment. Moreover, Nigeria has various policies on small-scale enterprises in recent National development plan and also in the structural Adjustment programmed (SAP). The researcher wants to carry out a research on what bakeries do and the role they play in economic growth and development the researcher also wants to have an idea base either to support all the sources about the poor impression people have on how to improve their production so as to contribute effectively in national economic growth and development.
Bakeries can do more individualized jobs for customers and thereby attract them on the basis of specialty product quality and personal services rather than on the impersonal of price or mass production of largely identical business. Based on the above, the need for studying this topic is to show the effectiveness of small-scale business in national economic growth and development.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The importance of small scale business in the promotion of economic growth and development has always been at the forefront of development strategies. However, many developing countries have failed to adopt this strategy owing to their belief that it is a relatively show process of industrialization which may not be very compatible with their desire to “catch up” with the industrial countries. This along with the relative availability of foreign exchange (particularly through foreign grants and export of basic commodities) in the early days of independence has encourage many of those countries to follow a different mode of industrialization for transition from a largely gravis ion society to a modern industrial sector including Nigeria, adopted import substitution strategy of industrialization aimed mainly at producing domestically consumer goods that were erstwhile imported. This strategy of industrialization often requires continuous dependence on major supplier’s over-seas for the provision raw materials and spare parts needed for uninterrupted production in these industries.
Therefore, the aim of this study is to know:
? Whether or not small scale business provides opportunities for individual freedom and economic growth and development.
? To know if small business community makes a significant contribution to our total economic system as suggested earlier

? To find out whether or not bakery industry contribute to the economic growth and development of the country.
? If customers are satisfied by the services tendered by bakeries
? To formulate business strategies and make recommendations that would be more effective in bakery industries.

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
To guide the investigation of the issue raise in the problem definition. It is hypothesized that:
HYPOTHESIS 1
H0: Small-scale industry does not contribute to economic growth & Development
H1: Small-scale industry contributes to economic growth development.
HYPOTHESIS 2
Ho: Lack of finance is the major problem facing small-scale business
Hi: Small-scale business does not have any problem in terms of Finance.
HYPOTHESIS 3
Ho: Bakeries do not encourage the use of local resources in larger
Scale in Nigeria
Hi: Bakeries encourage the use of local resources in larger scale in
Nigeria

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is very timely, especially today that all hand is on desk to enhance the development and growth of the Nigeria’s economy through the small scale enterprises. This study will be of immense benefits to cottage enterprises as well as other small and medium scale enterprise.
Furthermore, the research work will serve as a secondary data to future researches on small and medium scale enterprises.
Finally, this work is of importance to the researcher in the following ways.
? It will expose and enable him to know more about the organization. Enterprises under study.
? It will enable him to more about the role, which small and medium scale enterprises play in Nigeria.
? It will also enable him to know the different meaning/definitions and classifications of small and medium scale enterprises.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study i.e. small scale enterprise is very wide it had to be carried out in all small-scale industries in Nigeria.

1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is therefore limited to bakeries industries in Enugu Urban because of time and material resources to see to the whole nation.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
NAFDAC: National Agency for Food and Drug Administration Commission
SAP: Structural Adjustment Programmed

REFERENCES
Aguolu, P. S. (1998). Financial Management, 2nd Edition, Aba: Model Academic
Publishers Ltd
Harry, D. & Melane, E. (1993). Core Business Studies Finance, London: Mike
Mardes Publishers Ltd
Uche, C. (1996). Principle of Public Finance, 1st Edition, Onitsha: Constrag
Communication Ltd

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THE GROWTH OF INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA: PROBLEM AND PROSPECT (A CASE STUDY OF AJAOKUTA STEEL COMPANY)

THE GROWTH OF INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA: PROBLEM AND PROSPECT
(A CASE STUDY OF AJAOKUTA STEEL COMPANY)


NUMBERS PAGES: 70        RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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ABSTRACT

Empirical evidences from the developed and few emerging economies have shown that the producing unit of the economy tends to influence the entire economy’s performance and stability. But, without adequate finance, incentive of operations, business friendly environment, effective management and operation structure, growth-oriented government policies and regulations, the manufacturing firms’ will not perform as expected. The rate of firms exit in the Nigeria’s manufacturing sector prompted this study, to analyze the dynamics of manufacturing firm’s growth in Nigeria using panel analysis. The panel regression model employed emanated from the neo-classical, managerial, and optimum firm’s size theories and
the Gibrat’s Law of Proportionate Effect. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to survey 45 manufacturing firms quoted under the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) between 1989 and 2008. The estimated dynamic panel model revealed that the manufacturing firms finance mix, utilization of assets to generate more sales, abundance of funds reserve and government intervention as indicated by Tobin’s Q, operating efficiency, capital reserve and government policies are significant determinants of manufacturing firms’ growth and dictated their dynamics in Nigeria. Also, that the Gibrat’s component enhanced the growth rate of
manufacturing firms’ sales, profit and capital employed dynamically in the manufacturing sector.
Keywords: Firms, Manufacturing, Growth, Determinants, Panel data, Nigeria

TABLE OF CONTENT
APRROVAL PAGE
DEDICATION
ABSTRACT
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 PURPOSE OF OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
1.4 HYPOTHESIS
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
CHATPTER TWO
LITERATURE REWIEW
2.2 INTRODUCTION
2.3 DETERMINANTS OF INDUSTRIAL GROWTH: THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL REVIEW
2.4 PROBLEMS OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA
2.5 PROSPECTS OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE INDUSTRIES IN
2.6 THE NIGERIAN GOVERNMENT PARTICIPATION IN INDUSTRIES FIRMS
2.7 GOVERNMENT PARTICIPATION IN INDUSTRIAL GROWTH IN NIGERIA
2.8 GOVERNMENT AS A BUSINESS REGULATOR
2.8.1 PROVISION AND ENACTMENT OF BENEFICIAL AND SUPPORTIVE LAWS
2.8.2 PROVISION OF INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES
2.8.3 PROVISION AND CONSTANT MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT
2.8.4 ESTABLISHMENT AND FINANCE OF RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS
2.8.5 PROVISION OF DIRECT FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO SMALL BUSINESS ORGANIZATION
2.9 THE NATIONAL DIRECTORATE OF EMPLOYMENT (NDE) AS A GUIDE TOWARDS ENHANCING INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA
2.10 THE ROLE INDUSTRY IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
2.10.1 ADVANTAGES OF SELF EMPLOYMENT
2.10.2 GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE IN AJAOKUTA STEEL COMPANY LIMITED
2.10.3 INDIVIDUAL GRIEVANCE AND COLLECTIVE GRIEVANCE
2.10.4 JOB SECURITY
2.10.5 PROMOTION
2.10.6 PERFORMANCE-BASE REWARDS IMPROVE THE GOVERNANCE OF SCHOOLS
2.10.7 PROVIDES MOTIVATION TO TEACHERS
2.10.8 STUDENT OUTCOMES IMPROVE
2.10.9 CONCEPTUAL MODEL
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
3.2 THE PRIMARY FUNCTION OF AJAOKUTA STEEL COMPANY
3.3 UNION MANAGEMENT RELATION IN AJAOKUTA STEEL COMPANY
3.4 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF AJAOKUTA STEEL COMPANY
3.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER FOUR
ANALYSES AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
4.0. INTRODUCTION
4.1 DATA ANALYSES AND INTERPRETATION
4.1.1 METHODS
4.1.2 RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.2 INFERENTIAL STATISTICS
4.2.1 TYPESS OF HYPOTHESIS
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 SUMMARY
5.1 CONCLUSION
5.2 RECOMMENDATION
BIBLIOGRAPHY

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ENTREPRENEURIAL EDUCATION AS A TOOL FOR REDUCING UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA

ENTREPRENEURIAL EDUCATION AS A TOOL FOR REDUCING UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA


NUMBERS PAGES: 70        RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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ABSTRACT

Education in Nigeria is devoid of the element crucial to averting the surging rate of
unemployment in the country. The provision of entrepreneurial development through
education will advance the economy of the nation if much credence would be given to it and
ingrained with focus on profitable personal development. Unemployment prevails in the
country, hence, the growth of violence, poverty and segregation amongst citizens, because the
educational system itself fails to empower the ones passing through it.
The core message of the evolving educational policy in Nigeria is devoid of a system of
education that emphasizes on the need to culture the country’s youth through the knowledge
of rudimentary entrepreneurial development, common cultural heritage, and identification of
exploitable strengths of structures, systems and cultures of others. If anything, there is a
greater need of its augmentation, which can propel the country to work towards enduring
peace and harmony.
This research work, therefore, was carried out to examine the strategies of entrepreneurial
education carried out in two of the universities pioneering it Federal University of
Technology, Akure, and Covenant University Ota, the former being a public university and
the latter a private university. The objectives of the study were to appraise if educational
styles arouse the interest of students in the industries of their discipline; to explore the
effectiveness of entrepreneurial development strategy in education in universities that
implement it; to see if the current university educational system stimulates entrepreneurial
creativity in its students
The methodology adopted was a mixed analysis of quantitative and qualitative parameters
based on the survey design which relied on primary and secondary sources of gathering data,
through the use of questionnaires and interview instruments. Three hundred (300)
questionnaires were administered, and two hundred and fifty four (254) were returned. The
study adopted quota and simple random sampling technique. The data was analyzed and
presented using tables and percentages.
Consequently the findings on this research portrayed a huge disparity between the perception
and conceptualization of entrepreneurship in the graduates of each university used in the
study, creating the significance in the strategies being used to educate the students while in
the university. The study shows that entrepreneurial education should be taught in the field
and through practical approaches, rather than using theoretical approaches, as the former
yields better results for the economy than the latter. It was discovered that graduates from
Covenant University have more aptness to creating value, and are self driven to developing
some form of business whether or not they have an employment.
The study recommends that there should be a working partnership, bridging the gap between
the higher institutions and the industry; lecturers should have field experience to aid
communication and teaching of the courses. The study also recommends that Universities
should work toward becoming entrepreneurial hubs for students and young entrepreneurs;
the government should also focus more on the youth age group for entrepreneurship
development in the country.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ..
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS .
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY.
CHAPTER TWO..
LITERATURE REVIEW …
2.0 INTRODUCTION
2.1 UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA …
2.2 ENTREPRENEURIAL EDUCATION AND ITS CONSEQUENCE IN NIGERIAN ECONOMY 19
2.3 WHO IS AN ENTREPRENEUR? .
2.4 OBJECTIVES OF ENTREPRENEURIAL EDUCATION ….
2.5 ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN HIGHER EDUCATION IS CRITICAL TO DEVELOPMENT ….
2.6 WORLDVIEW ON THE ISSUE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND HIGHER EDUCATION ….
CHAPTER THREE …………..
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ……..
3.0 INTRODUCTION .
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.2 POPULATION OF STUDY AND SAMPLE SIZE .
3.3 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE .
3.4 THE SAMPLES …
3.5 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS
3.6 VALIDITY & RELIABILITY OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS ..
CHAPTER FOUR  PRESENTATION OF DATA
4.0 INTRODUCTION
4.1 ANALYSIS OF RESPONSES AND DIFFERENTIATION OF COVENANT UNIVERSITY, OTA
AND FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, AKURE
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE UNIVERSITIES..
CURRICULUM ASSESSMENT WITH REGARDS TO ENTREPRENEURSHIP FOR FEDERAL
UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, AKURE …
CURRICULUM ASSESSMENT WITH REGARDS TO ENTREPRENEURSHIP FOR COVENANT
UNIVERSITY …
ACTIVITIES OF THE CENTRE .
ANALYSES .
GRADUATE INTERVIEWS ANALYSIS ..
CHAPTER FIVE .
CONCLUSION ..
RECOMMENDATIONS….
REFERENCES …
BIBLIOGRAPHY .
APPENDIX A
STUDENT QUESTIONAIRRE ..
APPENDIX B ……
GRADUATE SURVEY TABLE …

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AID AWARENESS PROGRAM IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF OGBOMOSO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)

AID AWARENESS PROGRAM IN NIGERIA

(A CASE STUDY OF OGBOMOSO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)


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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research work was to examine the level of awareness and attitude of students towards HIV/AIDS in OGBOMOSO LOCAL GOVERNMENT Area of oyo State. The research instrument used was the questionnaires, 200 respondents were used for the study. From the data collected the following finding were revealed that although many students have heard of HIV/AIDS as a dreaded killer diseases, only few of them know the causes of HIV/AIDS. Some of the students lack adequate information on the mode of transmission of the diseases there is poor role of the secondary schools in HIV/AIDS education of student’s lack of sex education in the school curriculum. Parents shy away from their responsibility in educating their children about their body chemistry. Lastly lack of awareness campaign about HIV/AIDS based on these findings the following recommendations were made: Government should encourage the introduction of sex education in the College of Education Ekiadolor-Benin school curriculum. Government and non-governmental organizations should put in more efforts on awareness campaign program. Government should organize seminars, workshops based on the mode of transmission of HIV among students, which will enable them to know that is their responsibility to educate their children about their body chemistry.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
HIV/AIDS is one of the greatest health challenges threatening the developing countries today. It leaves indelible marks that are avoidable with proper knowledge and compliant behavior. Although it is a popular health topic in global media discourse, context-specific and culture-oriented campaigns would impact both urban and rural publics for positive health orientation and behavior change. This type of communication would be less discriminatory but rather affect receivers’ knowledge, attitude and practice irrespective of their socio-demographic, economic and cultural backgrounds.
Some modern communication technologies may limit information availability to specific media consumers, making developing countries and the grassroots estranged from current trends associated with the epidemic. Little is thus known or documented about context and culture-specific media strategies utilized for easy availability, affordability, accessibility and comprehension of HIV messages in a pluralistic country like Nigeria.
The present project examines the common media platforms used for HIV campaign and identifies the information dissemination strategies, language and subject of HIV/AIDS awareness in the Nigerian. It describes the type of information available to the Nigerian publics and the preventive mechanisms adapted to impact on public opinion and human response.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

HIV/AIDS has created a major health and social problems which has estimated to threaten the survival of individuals in most countries. In Nigeria HIV/AIDS situation is generally pathetic issues particularly the increasing rate of HIV/AIDS infection and death among students in Benin City which is the chief concern of this research. HIV/AIDS was first officially reported in San Francisco in June 1981 by doctors from Los Angeles who discovered the strange disease fundamentally among male students who were homosexuals and intravenous drugs users.
The disease is prevalent among homosexual because it is commonly found in the blood and homosexual engaged in anal sex which causes rectal bleeding that make transmission take place. most researcher believe that human beings acquired HIV/AIDS through different means. Several schools of taught which are idealism =, behaviorism and pragmatism et arose concerning the causes of HIV/AIDS is caused by a virus known as T-Lymphotrophic virus type III (HTL II) or AIDS related virus (ARV) infection of this virus does not always lead to Aid preliminary in good health other may develop illness varying severity from mild to extremely serious. The virus that subsequently lead to Aid diseases is called Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV). According to population report 2007 of the Joint United Programme for HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) which show approximately 20,000 new cases of HIV infected occur per day globally, 50% of this are among young people 30% of over sixty million people living with HIV/AIDS are within the age bracket of 15 to 30 years. Population report (2001) Africa is the epic center of the pander because of it has felt the greatest of AIDS where of Africa constituted only 13.2% of world population it account for 69.2% i.e. about (2/3) of world HIV/AIDS cases.

By the year 2007, 2.3 million Africa out of 36.1 million world wide have been infected (W.H.O.) AIDS is the fourth leading cause of death in the world wide number of one cause of death in Sub Sahara Africa in this region2 million death as result of AIDS was recorded for the year 2007 which make 80% of the total world wide population those infected with HIV/AIDS and Nigeria as a populous country is not excluded.

In Nigeria HIV/AIDS situation is getting worst a a result of ignorance, denial stigmatization and unsaved sexual practice. Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS is increased by social factors such as moral decadence, conflict, inequality, and inadequate health care system and poverty. Ragging from research activities like huge financially having been invested by individual, local committee medical experts governmental organization to fight against the spread of the view and to take care of the people living with HIV/AIDS. The use of anti-retroviral drugs, use of micro biocide (for vaginal or erectal administration). Effective sex education, family life education (FLE) are all target campaigns against the killer disease HIV/AIDS. However, in many developing countries like Nigeria Aids remain a rising epidemic where there is inadequate knowledge about Hiv status indulge in HIV/AIDS friendly behaviour and illicit prenatal and unprotected sexual activities at an alarming rate. Whether in school or at home, the age of which most Nigerian students have their first sexual experience is increasing and also the rate of their promiscuity. As a result of the problem of lack of awareness mentioned above the study is undertaking to explain the phenomenon of HIV/AIDS, and way to spread and to create awareness on the risk danger severity and consequences of being infected with HIV/AIDS since Aids has remain on incurable disease.

Students can reduce their risk of exposure to HIV/AIDS by modifying and changing their sexual attitude and behavior.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
A lot of work has been done about Aids especially in terms of prevention and finding a cure, non governmental organization and governmental organization have put so much financial human materials resources in the war against Aids inspite of this the disease has continued to spread at an alarming rate and Africa countries recorded the greatest number of Hiv infections and death. The United Nation (UN) estimated that 34.3 million in the world have Aids more than 50% higher than what the world health organization global programme projected in 2002 with 24.3 million of them in sub-Saharan Africa Sampont, 2008

Everyone is vulnerable to HIV/AIDS infections but it has been observed that adolescent and youth are more vulnerable, this is true in most developed and under developed countries from a substantial point of view todays students are under greater peril of HIV/AIDS, STDs and Aids control agency estimate that more than 60% of new cases of HIV/AIDS infections occurs in youth between the age bracket of 13-17 years, this is because students are becoming sexually active and having multiple sexual partners and their vulnerable misconception about course and consequence of the risk severity of the disease. Another issue to be considered is that parents shy away from educating their children sexually, and this type of education may not be in school curriculum which makes most students at risk as a result of ignorance? Not only this many affluent and poor young students with insufficient parental nurture and guidance because parent spend most of their time for mix of survival.

Some students lack adequate and proper knowledge about this disease and their own development and its implication through the lack of awareness about protective and provisional health and how to utilize this service and this is attributed to the medical institutional effect today in Nigeria and turn lead to considerable negative aspect such as socio-economic on the students, family and society at large. This implies that if there is awareness and knowledge of consequence of HIV/AIDS among students the high prevalent could be reduces and students will embrace preventive behavioural change since the students have the right to speak specifically in this HIV/AIDS era.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study investigates the level of awareness of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. This is with the view of establishing the relationship between their level of awareness of HIV/AIDS and their sexual behaviour.
The objectives will be realized by answering these questions.
(i) What kinds of sexual behaviour exist among Students of tertiary institutions in Nigeria?
(ii) To what level are students of tertiary institutions in Nigeria aware of HIV/AIDS?
(iii) Is there any relationship between the level of awareness of HIV/AIDS and their sexual behaviour?

1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study are:
i. To access the level of awareness and knowledge about HIV/AIDS among students.

ii. To determine the attitude of students towards people living with HIV/AIDS

iii. To enlighten all students about the right to protect themselves against HIV/AIDS.

iv. To inculcate into students the important routes through which proper information about sex, sexuality reproduction and human disease are made available.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Based on the above assumptions, the following research question will be tested

i. What is the level of awareness of students on the mode of transmission of Aids?

ii. What is the source of information on Aids among students?

iii. What is the perception of students towards HIV/AIDS?

iv. What is the attitude of students about HIV/AIDS?

v. Does cultural and religions influences make you to lack proper information about HIV/AIDS.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Every students, lecturer, staff and non-academic staff is venerable to HIV/AIDS which has considerable negative effects of an individual, family and society at large.
Naturally a great deal of pressure is on the researcher to find out how all categories of person can be protected from HIV/AIDS infection. The problem of HIV/AIDS is not only a medical issue but also a social issue since it affect the entire society as a whole. No disease can be effectively study outside social condition or without adequate information about social factors.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study will be carried out among students in Ovia North East in Benin City, Edo State. The range age of the population to be studied is between seventeen to twenty five include male and female students in different departments. The study is an assessment of the level of HIV/AIDS awareness and their knowledge leading to attitude behavioral change.

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REVENUE ALLOCATION IN NIGERIA

REVENUE ALLOCATION IN NIGERIA


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ABSTRACT

Whatever the theoretical and practical imperatives of federalism are, revenue
allocation (livewire in authoritative value allocation or who gets what, when, how and where?) remains an object of intense politics and, unquestionably, a major source of inter-group or inter-regional antagonism. Nigeria is no exception to this rule. Politics, well-anchored possess the potential of balancing conflicting interests and resolving socio-economic and political contradictions in the society. How far have politics in Nigeria gone in resolving contradictions associated with revenue allocation? This paper identifies six major contradictions/challenges confronting revenue allocation practice and concomitant inter-governmental fiscal relations in Nigeria, name: Non-Correspondence Problem; Fiscal Autonomy and Independence; Who Owns the Golden Goose (Federal Government, States, Local Governments or Communities?); Federation Account and Derivation Fund; Oil- Producing Areas and the Derivation Principle; and Inter-governmental Fiscal Relations and the Economy. Upon analysis, the paper argues that the Nigerian State
have not, and may well not be able to, resolve these nagging issues. The politically and economically fragile Nigerian state, operating in a highly unstable, fragile and geo-politically polarized society shows limited capacity to deal with these challenges. By this default, the paper argues, the promise of inventing development-promoting revenue sharing formula is lost in Nigeria. National progress is the ultimate casualty.
Keywords: Revenue allocation, federalism, Nigeria

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Approval page
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Proposal
Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
1.1 Brief Review of the Nigerian Experience as a Nation State
1.2 The Various Sources of Revenue to the Nigerian State
1.3 The Need/Basis of Allocation of Revenue
1.4 Statement of Research Problem
1.5 Purpose of the Study
1.6 Statement of Hypothesis
1.7 Significance of the Study
1.8 Scope and Limitation of the Study
1.9 Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review
2.1 The Definition of Revenue Allocation
2.2 The Definition of Political Stability
2.3 The Various Methods of Revenue Allocation
2.4 The Various Methods have help in Bringing about Political Stability or
Other wise in the Past
2.5 Criteria in use for Revenue Allocation
2.6 A Review of Federal Revenue Share 1992 – 1995
2.7 A Review of State Revenue Share 1992 –1995
2.8 A Review of Local Government Revenue Share 1992 –1995
2.9 Emergent Issues in Revenue Allocation 1999 Constitution and Newly Proposed Revenue Allocation (2001)

CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Interview
3.3 Source of Data
3.4 Primary Data Sources
3.5 Secondary Data Sources
3.6 Statistical Method Used
CHAPTER FOUR: Data Presentation and Review of Pre-independence Revenue Sharing Allocation Formula
4.1 1946 Revenue Allocation Formula
4.2 1957 – 1958 Revenue Allocation Formula
4.3 1963 – 1964 Revenue Allocation Formula
4.4 Review of 1989 – Revenue Sharing Formula
4.5 Review of 1995 Revenue Sharing Formula
4.6 Review of 2012 till date Revenue Sharing Formula
4.7 Hypothesis Testing

CHAPTER FIVE: Introduction
5.1 Summary of Findings
5.2 Recommendations
5.3 Conclusion
5.4 Area of Further Research
Bibliography

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THE CONTRIBUTION OF SMALL SCALE BUSINESS IN CHANGING A DEPRESSED ECONOMY (A CASE STUDY OF A SOAP INDUSTRY; DADIN KOWA ENTERPRISES, JOS, PLATEAU STATE).

THE CONTRIBUTION OF SMALL SCALE BUSINESS IN CHANGING A DEPRESSED ECONOMY
(A CASE STUDY OF A SOAP INDUSTRY; DADIN KOWA ENTERPRISES, JOS, PLATEAU STATE).


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ABSTRACT

The work is an academic exercise which attempt to study “the contribution of small-scale Business in changing a depressed economy”, with reference to Nigeria economy. The problems that stem government effort in promoting the development of small-scale sector, problem encountered by small-scale operations and it likely prospects. The researcher by undertaking this survey, she will be able to unearth the contribution of small-scale business toward changing a depressed economy. Research question were formulated from which the major finding were obtained and decision were made. Therefore, one of the findings is the employment generation which small-scale sectors contribute to any nation’s economy, if it is well managed. The information gathered through interview questionnaires and hysterical investigation were grouped into five chapters for easy analysis and logical presentation. Chapter one forms the research proposal, which confirms the introduction of the subject matter, background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, significance of the study scope and limitation, research question and definition of terms. Chapter two is the literature review, introduction contribution of small-scale business in changing a depressed economy, factors militating against it and government agency (SMEDA) while chapter three forms research method and procedure, questionnaire, data presentation and analysis, personal interview. Chapter four with data presentation analysis and research findings hypothesis while finally chapter five give summaries, conclusion and recommendation for small-scale business in changing a depressed economy of Nigeria.

TABLE OF CONTENT
i. Title Page
ii. Approval Page
iii. Certification
iv. Declaration
v. Dedication
vi. Acknowledgement
vii. Abstract
viii. Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Significance of the study
1.5 Scope and limitation of the study
1.6 Research questions
1.7 Definition of terms
References

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Small business defined
2.2 The contribution of small scale business in changing the depressed Nigeria economy.
2.3 Factor militating against the development of small and medium scale enterprises.
2.4 Government agency responsible for small enterprises development (SMDA).
2.5 The role of Nigeria Association of small scale Entrepreneurs in the development of the sector.
2.6 References

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introductions
3.1 Population of the study
3.2 The study sample size
3.3 Research design
3.4 Research instruments used
3.5 Questionnaire distribution and collection

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Presentation of data and analysis
4.2 Test of hypothesis
4.3 Research findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation
Bibliography
Appendix

 

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IMPACT OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ADAMAWA STATE”

IMPACT OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ADAMAWA STATE”


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ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE:
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study
The growth of the economy of a country depends on various economic variables, which they are created through socio-political situation of a country. The contribution of the various economy units to the main stream of the economy brings about growth. Growth in economy involves increasing the size of output of an economy. Small scale enterprise , most especially in Africa are the main economic agents that provide good and service for meeting the need of and aspiration of the people. The importance of small scale enterprise to the industrial sector cannot be over emphasis.
The small scale enterprise solve the problem of industrialization, tends to propel growth and quacking the achievement of structural transformation and diversification of economy (Adekunle (2002). It is also believed that without the expansion of export neither foreign aids nor import substitute can be seen as a final solution to economic development even after taken into consideration the problem of foreign and import substitute. Considering the vital role of small scale enterprises are playing in terms of economic development in less develop countries like creation of job opportunities, availability of consumer sovereignty ends to which tends to promote general welfare of people in less develop countries (including Nigeria), establishing of the small scale enterprises should be encourage so that they could constitute significantly to stimulating and developing a broad base culture to the state. The important characteristics of all developing countries are their labour intensive nature, Bruton (2000). Their impact will also mitigate rural-urban migration; they also have inability to respond to changing demand because of low capital intensive which allow product to be change at a relating low interval. Small scale enterprises aid the promotion of effective resources utilization in the economy.
Substantial development can only be achieved in Nigeria if the socio-economic problems such as unemployment, immigration, religious and tribal crisis corruption, etc, are properly addressed. Small scale enterprises are part of the tools for addressing these problems.
The economy of the advanced nations started from the establishment of small scale enterprises that were managed by entrepreneurs. More so, they attained levels of industrialization and were aided by their nation’s sound economic policies and social development programmers’. As argued by Graham (1999), small business enterprises constituted a large part of many economies of the world, including those of developed and advanced nations, numbering up to half to two- third of all business all over the world Tuleja, (2001). Thus, many managerial practices, policies, strategies and government interventions have been put in place to encourage the establishment, survival and growth of various types of small — scale enterprises in many economies of the world.
In Nigeria, small — scale enterprises account for substantial part of the total industrial employment and production in Nigeria business concerns. In the same vein, small — scale enterprises generates the industrial wealth of Nigerian in addition to being a major agent in the economic, technological, social and political growth and development of Nigeria not minding the presence of multinational and other large firms in Nigeria, such as shell, Mobil. NNPC, NITEL, PHCN among others Osuagwu (2001).
As small business entrepreneurship is concerned with business innovation and exploitation of business opportunities, in addition to the efficient and effective running of business by individuals, its relevance to today’s economy cannot be overstated. The Nigeria economy, undoubtedly, is characterized by many economic ills among which are high levels of unemployment, low standard of living, high rate of crime etc. small — scale enterprises assist in reducing the level of all these problems and disorder in Nigeria. The aftermath of the creation of jobs is also reducing the dependence of government to provide everybody with jobs. Furthermore, this creation of jobs in Nigerian economy by entrepreneurs would, to a large extend, reduce government expenditure, improve the standard of living of Nigerian, reduce social ills in the society and thus assist in creating a balanced society and economy.
It’s as a result of role played by small-scale enterprises that motivate government to come out with many economic policies aimed at moving the country from its present position as a consuming and import oriented nation country to a nation of self-reliance and industrialization among which was the indigenization programmed of 1972 known as the Nigerian Enterprises Promotion Degree enacted during the regime of General Yakubu Gowon (rtd). Other include General Olusegun Obasanjo’s phase two of the indigenization programmed that came out with anti- inflation decision on Operation Feed the Nation (OFN), Alhaji Shehu Shagari’s austerity measure and economic policy of reformation, General Ibrahim Babangida’s structural adjournment program me (SAP) and General Sani Abacha’s vision 2010. All of these were geared towards socio-economic development of the country.
Adamawa state with a population of over 2, 102,053 people (1991 census), with 21 local government areas, abandoned natural and human resources, has several small and medium enterprises operating all over the state especially in the metropolitan of Yola, the state capital. Therefore, this research study tries to examine the contribution of such enterprises operating in the furniture— making industry in enhancing the socioeconomic development of Adamawa state by taking some selected organizations conducting their activities along Atiku Abubakar road in the metropolitan area of Jimeta — Yola.
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
Small —scale enterprises constitute the bedrock of the industrialization of any economic for any country. In Nigeria, small-scale enterprises, which constitute the majority of the enterprises, have been contributing immensely to the socio-economic development and growth of the country. They provide employment to a lot of people, provide revenue to the government, contribute in reducing the rural-urban drift and hence contribute immensely to the standard of living and well-being of the people in the society. However, this type of business are bedeviled by a lot of problems ranging from ineffective management, poor capital base, low sale, competition, personal use of business funds, over investment in fixed asset, poor location, poor record keeping system and lack of enough government support to carry out their activities. That may explain why they cannot discharge their role effectively and efficiently to the society and economy of the country.
In Adamawa state, just like other states, the small- scale enterprises are facing the above named problems. In furniture- making industry, for instance, most of them cannot operate in large scale because of inadequate capital at their disposal and lack of managerial and technical know- how. Generally, therefore, this study attempts to look at how effective and efficient these enterprises have been in impacting positively on the socio- economic development and growth of the society and economy. Specifically the research study attempt to raise the following questions with a view to answering them in the course of the study.
I. Could it be due to of management staff of handle the operations of such enterprises?
ii. Could it be due to inadequate governmental support in running their activities?

1.3 Objective of the Study
Generally, the objective of the study is to assess the contribution examine of small- scale enterprises on the socio- economic well- being of the people of Adamawa state, taking a case study of furniture making enterprises. It has been established all over the world that small scale businesses employ the highest number of workforce found in any nation, be it developed or a developing nation. It is in the light of the above that the study will specifically focus on achieving the following objectives.
i. Trying to find out how effective and efficient are these small- scale enterprises in furniture making enterprises in Adamawa state is impacting positively on the social and economic life of the people
ii. Examining the factors affecting the role of these small- scale enterprises and trying to find way at making them better.
iii. Analyzing the internal and external environmental factors within the furniture-making enterprises business environment, with a view to seeing how they can be manipulated to their corporate advantage.

1.4 Research Hypothesis
The following are research hypothesis formulated to ascertain their validity.
Hypothesis i
Ho- The small-scale business in the furniture-making enterprises of Adamawa State does not impact positively on the socio-economic development of the society.
Ha: The small scale enterprises in the furniture- making enterprises of Adamawa State do impact positively on the socio- economic development of the society.
Hypothesis ii
Ho: the small scale business does not address the problem of unemployment in the furniture making enterprises in Adamawa state.
Ha: the small scale businesses do address the problem of unemployment in the furniture making enterprises of Adamawa state.
Hypothesis iii
Ho: Lack of government adequate support hinder small scale enterprises in the furniture making enterprises from operating at a fill output capacity toward socio- economic development of the society.
Ha: Lack of government adequate support do not hinder small — scale enterprises from operating at a full output capacity toward socioeconomic development of the society.

1.5 Significance of the Study
The study is on the small — scale enterprises which constitute the bedrock for industrialization in any economy. This is true for Nigeria as elsewhere because they constitute the major industrial sector of the country. Moreover, the fact that the study is on furniture- making industry contribute greatly to the physical growth and development of Adamawa state in particular (where the study is undertaken) at the country in general. In addition, the study may be of benefit to the entrepreneurs, workers and management at the furniture- making enterprises in particular and similar other business in general. Lastly, the study will no doubt contribute to knowledge for students and scholars who are interested in this area.

1.6 Scope of the Study
This study is conducted on small — scale enterprises, particularly on the furniture- making industry along Atiku Abubakar road of Yola metropolitan in Adamawa state. There are seven (7) furniture making enterprises that were selected, they include: Stainless furniture, Interwood furniture enterprises, Fame furniture enterprises, Diamond furniture, Living stone furniture, Obi furniture and fittings, and Asobi furniture enterprises.

1.7 Limitations of the Study
For everything one does in life, there must be some limitations of which this study is not an exception. The problems faced in the course of the research include:
i). Time factor: The limited time given by the department also affects the research because, necessary information required for the smooth take of the project could not be collected as planned.
ii) Accessibility of the research data: Due to unwillingness of providing accurate information by those concerned and also improper record keeping by some of the owners of the enterprises. The researcher had the problem of gathering enough data for the project.
iii) Financial constraint: The researcher was not in possession of enough resources to carry out the study widely.
1.8 Definitions of key terms
The following terms are used in the write-up are hereby define
for clarity sake.
i. Small scale enterprises (SSE): It has no universal acceptable definition, it varies among countries depending on their economic size, and the maximum number of the people to be employed also varies among countries. Thus, there are characteristic that are basically used to define small scale enterprises, which include:
o Independent management
o Capital structure
o Operated within a local market
o Small size
o Few numbers of employees
ii. Entrepreneurship: Management and economic experts defined entrepreneurship as the willingness and ability of the individual to seek out investment opportunity in and able to establish and run the enterprises successfully based on the identified opportunities.
iii. Enterprises: This refers to an organization, the purpose which is to perform certain commercial activities aimed at producing, processing and providing something to the market for profit.
iv. Furniture making enterprises: this subsection of small scale enterprises that are engaged in movable items/objects in a room or patio suitable for living or working e.g. Chair, desk, or cabinets with the aim of making profit.
v. Small scale industrial credit scheme (SSICS): It was establish in 1971 as revolving grant by federal and state government to assist in meeting the credit needs of small scale enterprises on relatively more liberal conditions compare to commercial banks.
vi. Structural adjustment programme (SAP): A programme implemented by general Babangida on economy, recommended to countries with balance of payment problems. The aim of the programme was to open up an economy and use of market forces in determining the prices, factors of production and their efficient allocation.

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CHALLENGES FACING FEMALE ADMINISTRATORS IN SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS IN THE ACCRA METROPOLIS

CHALLENGES FACING FEMALE ADMINISTRATORS IN SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS IN THE ACCRA METROPOLIS


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ABSTRACT

The study was to find out the challenges confronting women in educational administration in the country, particularly in the Greater Accra Region, where a sizeable number of them are found.
It sought to investigate whether (i) female administrators in education are discriminated against, (ii) how they do manage their career and families and (iii) whether there are any effective support services provided for them to enhance their effectiveness, among others.
The study was necessary due to the high level of concern for the issue of women in leadership positions, in recent times, in all fields, including education interviews, questionnaires and examination of official documents were used as the main instrument to collect data. Data was then subjected to both quantitative and non-quantitative analysis. One finding is that women face a myriad of challenges in managing schools that are entrusted to them.
Among such challenges are abject discriminations based on traditional norms and practices or gender/stereotyped roles for women continue to militate against female administrators in education.
It was recommended that gender advocacy groups such as churches and statutory bodies carry out seminars, workshops and other public awareness, campaigns to help eliminate the discrimination against women. Also special support mechanisms should be put in place to cushion women in leadership positions especially in education to enhance their effectiveness; this can be done in areas, such as provision of accommodation around duty point and provision of in-service training among others.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Pages
DECLARATION ii
ABSTRACT iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv
DEDICATION v
LIST OF TABLES ix
CHAPTER
ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 6
Purpose of the Study 7
Research Questions 8
Significance of the Study 8
Delimitation 9 Limitations 9
Definition of Terms 10
Organization of the Study 11
TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 12
Introduction 12
Discrimination against Female Administrators 12
Female Administrators Management of both Family and Career 15
Female Administrators and Role Conflicts 16
Female Administrators and Support Services 17
Female Administrators, Leadership Qualities and Styles 19
Leadership Concept 19
Leadership Qualities 21
Leadership Styles 23
The Expected Roles of the Head by Ghana Education 27
Service (GES)

THREE: METHODOLOGY 30
Introduction 30
Research Design 30
Population 32
Sample and Sampling Procedure 32
Development of the Instruments 34
Interview Guide for Female Administrators 34
Questionnaire for Assistants Female Administrators 35
Pre-Testing of Research Instruments 35
Procedure for Data Collection 36
Data Analysis Plan 37

FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 39
The Results 39

FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS 69
Summary of the study 69
Design of the Study 70
Summary of Research Findings 71
Discriminations against Female Heads or Headmistresses 71
Female Administrators Management of both
Family and Career 71
Female Administrators and Support Services 72
Female Administrators and Role Conflicts 73
Female Administrators, Leadership Qualities and Styles 74
Conclusions 74
Recommendations 75
Suggestions for Further Studies 77
REFERENCES 79
APPENDICES
A Interview Guide for Female Administrators 88
B Questionnaire for Assistant Female Administrators 93

 

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