MAINTENANCE OF BUILDINGS OF PUBLIC INSITUTIONS IN GHANA. CASE STUDY OF SELECTED INSTITUTIONS IN THE ASHANTI REGION OF GHANA.

MAINTENANCE OF BUILDINGS OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN GHANA.

CASE STUDY OF SELECTED INSTITUTIONS IN THE ASHANTI REGION OF GHANA.


NUMBERS PAGES: 60         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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1.1 Introduction
Physical infrastructure constitutes a high proportion of the country’s investment. It is therefore of primary importance that these facilities which include public buildings are maintained in order that they can serve both the architectural and aesthetical functions for which they are built. The physical appearance of buildings housing public institutions in part constitutes the basis upon which the society makes their initial judgment of the quality of services to be offered.
One of the critical problems confronting the housing industry in Ghana is the poor maintenance practice (Afranie and Osei Tutu, 1999). The role of Public Institutions in National development cannot be over-emphasized. However, in spite of the heavy investment in public buildings, Public institutions allow their structures to care for themselves without any sustainable maintenance plan to preserve the quality of the buildings. The continued efficient and effective performance of public institutions depends on the nature of their buildings in addition to other factors such as enhanced conditions of service, provision of the requisite tools etc.
Public Institution buildings consist of both dwelling (residential accommodation) and non-dwelling (office accommodation). Both residential buildings as well as office buildings are prone to defects due to their permanent and lengthy usage. All elements of buildings deteriorate at a greater or lesser rate dependent on materials and methods of construction, environmental conditions and the use of the buildings (HMSO 1972).
According to Seeley 1987, neglect of maintenance has accumulative results with rapidly increasing deterioration of the fabric and finishes of a building accompanied by harmful effects on the contents and occupants. Therefore, buildings are too valuable assets to be neglected in this way. In his hierarchy of needs theory Maslow (1954) identifies five basic needs which are organized into successive level of importance in an ascending order. He identified physiological needs as the most basic needs of human beings which include air, food, water, shelter (housing), sex and sleep.
BS 3811(1984), define ‘maintenance’ as “The combination of all technical and associated administrative actions intended to retain an item in, or restore it to, a state in which it can perform its required function.”
Maintenance brings about improved utilization of buildings ensuring the highest safety standards. It must be emphasized that more rather than less maintenance work is necessary if the value and amenity of the nation’s building stock was to be maintained. A good maintenance system is also a good disaster mitigation system. Moreover, a well operated system of maintenance for buildings and equipment has the effect of being a very effective disaster mitigation measure in terms of cost and facility usage. It ensures the most economic way to keep the building and equipment in the best of form for normal use, given the original design and materials  Maintenance, which can also be explained as the continuous protective care of the fabric, contents and settings of a place can be categorized according to why and when it happens, as corrective maintenance, which is necessary to bring a building to an accepted standard. Planned maintenance is work to prevent failure, which recurs predictably within the life of a building such as cleaning gutters or painting. Emergency Corrective Maintenance deals with work that must be initiated immediately for health, safety, security reasons or that may result in the rapid deterioration of the structure or fabric if not undertaken (for example, roof repairs after storm damage, graffiti removal, or repairing broken glasses).
When buildings are neglected, defects can occur which may result in extensive and avoidable damage to the building fabric or equipment. Poor maintenance has resulted in damage and deterioration to some public buildings in Ghana. Neglect of maintenance especially in relation to replacing electricity cables after thirty of use can also give rise to fire and safety hazards, which could result in the Institution owning the buildings being found liable for any injuries and damages. Another case in point is the Job 600 built by Ghana’s first President Dr. Kwame Nkrumah to host the Organization of African Unity meeting in 1965 has its main building quite rundown and has been under renovation for many years now. The present state of this public building could be attributed to lack of maintenance and neglect after being put into use.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CONTENTS PAGES
Title Pages i
Declaration ii
Abstract iii
Dedication v
Acknowledgement vi
Table of Content vii
List of Tables xii
List of Figures xiii
CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Problem statement 3
1.3 Research Question 4
1.4 Research Objectives 5
1.4.1 General Objective 5
1.4.2 Specific objectives 5
1.5 Research Justification 5
1.6 Scope of the Study 6
1.7 Limitation of the Study 6
1.8 Organization of the Report 6
CHAPTER TWO: THE CONCEPT OF BUILDING AND THE
NATURE OF BUILDING MAINTENANCE
2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 The Concept of Building 7
2.2.1 Definition of Building 7
2.2.2 Lives of Building 7
2.2.3 Public Residential House Types in Ghana 8
2.3 Definition of Maintenance 8
2.4 Types of Maintenance 11
2.4.1 The Value of Preventive Maintenance 15
2.5 Components of Maintenance 16
2.5.1 Servicing 17
2.5.2 Rectification 17
2.5.3 Replacement 17
2.6 Other Maintenance Related Concepts and Definitions 18
2.6.1 Prevention 18
2.6.2 Consolidation 18
2.6.3 Rehabilitation 18
2.6.4 Repair 18
2.6.5 Renovation 19
2.6.6 Refurbishment 19
2.6.7 Extension 19
2.7 Technology of Maintenance 19
2.8 Economic and Social Significance of Maintenance 20
2.9 Aims of Maintenance 21
2.10 Factor Influencing Decision to Undertake Maintenance 21
2.11 Maintenance Policy 23
2.12 Physical Causes of Poor Maintenance in Residential
Buildings 24
2.13 Organisation of Maintenance Department 25
2.13.1 Functions of the Maintenance Department 25
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 29
3.2 Research Methodology 29
3.3 Research Design 30
3.3.1 Quantitative 30
3.3.2 Case Study Method 30
3.3 Variables of the Study 31
3.4 The Concept of Population, Sample Frame and Unit of
Analysis 32
3.4.1 Population 32
3.4.2 Sample Frame/Unit of Analysis 33
3.5 Sampling 33
3.5.1 Sampling Size Determination 35
3.5.2 Criteria for Selecting the Study Area 36
3.6 Data Collection Method and Instrument 37
3.6.1 Primary Data Collection 37
3.6.2 Questionnaire Design 38
3.6.3 Piloting of Questionnaires 38
3.6.4 Secondary Data Collection 39
3.7 Data Analysis Design 40
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction 42
4.2 Types of Houses Occupied by Personnel 42
4.3 The Present State/ Condition of the Building 43
4.3.1 Availability of Domestic Facilities/Services
In Public Buildings 43
4.3.2 Condition of Domestic Facilities/Services 43
4.3.3Present State of Building Element 49
4.3.3.1 Foundation 49
4.3.3.2 Roofing Element 51
4.3.3.3 Flooring Element 53
4.3.3.4 Wall Element 53
4.3.3.5 Painting 54
4.3.3.6 Maintenance Condition of
Windows/Door (Wooden Members) 56
4.3.3.7 General Maintenance Condition of
Building by Institution and House Type 57
4.4 Causes of Maintenance Problems in Public Building 59
4.4.1 Age of the Building 59
4.4.2 Lack of Maintenance culture 60
4.4.3 Inadequate Funds and High Maintenance Cost 60
4.4.4 Pressure on building facilities by number of users 61
4.4.5 Poor construction work and maintenance work done
By maintenance personnel of the institution 63
4.5 Maintenance Policy and Practices of public Institution 63
4.5.1 Mode of Access to the building and its
Maintenance 64
4.5.2 Funding of Maintenance Activities of
Public Institution 65
4.5.3 Staffing Preventive Maintenance Programs 65
4.6 View of Key Actors on the Causes of Maintenance
Problem of Public Institutions 67
CHAPTER FIVE: KEY FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS
AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Introduction 70
5.2 Summary of Key Findings of the Study 70
5.2.1 Availability and Condition of Facilities
in Public Building 70
5.2.2 Condition of Building Elements 71
5.2.3 General Building Condition 73
5.2.4 Causes of Maintenance Problems in Public
Building 75
5.3 Recommendations 75
5.4 Conclusion 77
REFERENCES 80
APPENDICES
Appendix 1 83
Appendix II 91
Appendix III 95
Appendix IV 100
LIST OF TABLE
TABLE PAGES

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