A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RENTAL VARIATION IN RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL PROPERTIES IN NIGERIA

A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RENTAL VARIATION IN RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL PROPERTIES IN NIGERIA


NUMBERS PAGES: 68         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Shelter is a basic necessity in life. An individual can satisfy this need by either occupying his own (owner’s occupier) property or renting another person’s property. In our traditional society, the need for shelter is mainly met through the first alternative that is owner occupation. With the emergency of urban centers’, the situation has changed. Many people are no longer about to own property because of the difficulty in the acquisition of land and the high cost of building construction. Therefore, they are left with the alternative of renting other people’s properties in order to satisfy their need for shelter. Consequently two classes of urban resident have emerged, the landlord and the tenant under this arrangement the tenant pays to the landlord a certain amount of money in consideration for his use of the landlord’s house. This amount is popularly known as rent.
During the civil war the Nigeria that is 1966 to 1970 many landed properties in the urban areas of the former Eastern Region of Nigeria, including Enugu, were destroyed. Consequently, there was a sharp decline in the supply of landed properties after the war. Furthermore, the post – civil war period witnessed an unprecedented number of the rural population trooping into the urban centres due to the conspicuous prosperity brought about in the urban area by the oil boom. This resulted to high demand for the existing limited supply of landed properties. Consequent upon these, rent for landed properties increased considerably.
This trend has continued with the effect that “the average worker is paying 30% to 40% of his salary as rent” (Oshadiya, 1985). Thus the increase in rents on the properties has led to the variation of rent on properties.
In urban area due to location advantage (for example prime location) which some properties offer above others for commercial and residential uses, rent tend to very on account of the type of use which a property can offer.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Location of economic properties has been a difficult concept to understand. Although the primary objective of commercial properties is the derivation of financial gains, while that of residential properties is for habitation, shelter and comfort, the demand for land is a reflection of the profitability or utility derivable from its use. The greater the benefit to be obtained from a particular use, the higher the rent that the user will be willing to pay for it.
There appear to be wide ranging differences in the levels of rent passing on residential and commercial properties in Enugu and Nigeria generally.
This research is seeking among other things to find out the causes of rental variation in commercial and residential properties in Nigeria, Ogui New Layout and G.R.A as a case study.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main aim of this research is to examine the reasons for rental variation in commercial and residential properties with a view to provide tool to be used in catching issues related to rent on these properties in Enugu and Nigeria generally.
To achieve the standard goal, the following objectives are to be pursued;
i) To identify the level of rents for commercial and residential properties in the study area.
ii) To ascertain and examine the factors influencing the rents being commanded by these properties.
iii) To determine or examine whether the income of prospective buyers/tenants affect their decision to acquire properties.
iv) To ascertain if there is disparity in rental values for residential and commercial properties in the study area.
v) To find out the rate of demand between commercial and residential properties?

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. What is the level of rent for commercial and residential properties in Ogui New Layout and G.R.A respectively between years 2002-2004?
ii. What are the factors influencing rents passing on those commercial and residential properties.
iii. Does the income of prospective buyers/tenants affect their decision to acquire properties?
iv. Is there any disparity in the rental value or rent passing on residential and commercial properties in the study area?
v. Amongst properties put for Commercial and Residential use, which is on a higher rate of demand?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The finding of this study will be of benefit to the following groups;
Firstly, tenants who are charged rents based on different reasons, especially when the properties are of the same nature (physically). This will again enable the investors not only to understand how occupier thinks, but also why and the things they consider before acquiring properties for certain uses.
Secondly, the generality of the public can now understand the reason why the rents being commanded by these properties have to differ.

Lastly, this research work will help to determine the factors influencing, commercial and residential properties which is an essential pre-requisite to successful development as well as stimulating interest in the students to carryout out further research on the topic.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study covers a period of three years (2002 to 2004) and it is restricted to selected properties (Residential and commercial) comprising blocks of flat and tenements in Ogui New Layout and G.R.A, Enugu.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Expectedly, this work met with some hindrances during the stage of data collection. The issue of rent passing on a property (residential or commercial) is usually regarded as classified information, which is not easily disclosed to people particularly researchers. This was largely suspected to be the reason why some Estate surveyors, property owners, tenants, Estate firms, property companies and even Estate agents who were approached through oral interviews, discussions and visitations found it rather difficult to reveal essential information despite every explanation that the exercise is strictly for academic purposes, a good number of them, still nursed the fear that it may be for property rating and taxation purposes.
There was also the problem of logistics occasioned by the society. The researcher worked with a very light budget throughout the period of study as the frequent and repeated visits to relevant persons and offices entailed quite some money. Moreover, also recall that some of the interview respondents were not co-operative as they kept on playing to the gallery as a means of avoiding supplying the required information. On a general note however, the researcher ensured that these bottle – necks never affected the findings of this study since the success far outweighed the hindrances as enumerated.
1.8 OVERVIEW OF STUDY
Chapter one treats the introduction of the project work. Chapter two deals with literature review, chapter three treats the research methodology, chapter four is on data presentation, analysis and interpretation and chapter five deals with findings recommendation and conclusion.
1.9 DEFINITION OF RELEVANT TERMS
RENT: The universal dictionary of the English language (1971) defined rent as the regular payment made for the use of land or buildings that belongs to someone else. The Economist defined rent as “the revenue from land resources that is equal to the value of its marginal services rendered in a productive process” (Richfield, 1974).
In summary therefore, the word rent is that fixed periodic payment made by a tenant to his landlord for the exclusive possession and use of leased property.
PROPERTIES: According to the High Court, the Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court, property is the right to possession, enjoyment and disposition of all rights and things subject to ownership.
Property is therefore a legal right expressing the relationship between a person, the owner and his possession of the thing owned.
A RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY: according to Kilpatrick (1999) is a land use in which housing predominates, as opposed to industrial and commercial areas. Housing may vary significantly between, and through, residential areas. These include single-family housing, multi-family residential, or mobile homes.
COMMERCIAL PROPERTY: According to Malys (2012), this refers to buildings or land intended to generate a profit, either from capital gain or rental income. It includes office buildings, industrial property, medical centers, hotels, malls, retail stores, farm land, multifamily housing buildings, warehouses, and garages. In many states, residential property containing more than a certain number of units qualifies as commercial property for borrowing and tax purposes.

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RELEVANCE OF FINANCIAL RATIO ANALYSIS IN THE APPRAISAL OF SMALL SCALEBUSINESS (A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED SMALL SCALE COMPANY IN CROSS RIVER STATE)

RELEVANCE OF FINANCIAL RATIO ANALYSIS IN THE APPRAISAL OF SMALL SCALE BUSINESS

(A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED SMALL SCALE COMPANY IN CROSS RIVER STATE)


NUMBERS PAGES: 67         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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                                                                               ABSTRACT
This research work examined the relevance of financial ratio analysis in the appraisal of small scale business with particular reference to Mr. Biggs fast food in cross river state. The study examined the establishing of the extent to which accounting ratio can be used to interpret accounting records of small scale business, finding and analysing the meaning of financial ratio analysis to the researcher knowledge and understanding of financial statement of the company, to establish the effect of ratio analysis on the users of financial statement and to highlight available ratios for measuring the true state of performance of company. The data were collected from both primary and secondary sources, while primary data was collected by the use of questionnaires; the secondary data were based on readings from textbooks, internet and journals. Data from the response to questionnaire was presented using the statistical tool Chi- square. From the analysis, the findings showed that non challant attitude in the use of financial statement affects small scale business; obsolete use of data affects small scale business and also that lack of competent management affect small scale business. It was however recommended that the retained earnings of the small scale business should be properly invested in order to have more capital for business.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Approval Page ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgement v
Abstract vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement ofthe problem 2
1.3 Objectives of the Study 2
1.4 Research questions 3
1.5 Research Hypothesis 3
1.6 Significant of the study 4
1.7 Scope of the study 4
1.8 Limitation of the study 5
1.9 Historical background of the case study 5
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Coherent Literature review (Academic review) 7
2.2Financing of small scale business 9
2.3 The nature and scope of financial ratio analysis1 2
2.4 Financial analysis and its uses to firm 15
2.5 Tools for financial analysis 17
2.6 Ratio analysis and standard of comparison 19
2.7 Types of financial Ratio
2.8 Relevance of financial Ratio analysis 28
2.9 Inflation and financial analysis 30
2.10 Limitations of Ratio analysis 31
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design 33
3.2 Sources of Data 33
3.3 Area of Study 34
3.4 Population of the study 34
3.5 Sample and sampling techniques 34
3.6 Viability of the instrument 35
3.7 Reliability of the instrument 36
3.8 Method of data analysis 36
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Analysis and interpretation of responses 37
4.2 Analysis of questionnaire 40
4.3 Test of Hypotheses 50
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of findings 61
5.2 Conclusion 62
5.3 Recommendations. 63
Appendix 65

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ANALYSIS ON THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF OIL COMPANIES IN THE HOST COMMUNITIES IN THE NIGER DELTA REGION OF NIGERIA: (A CASE STUDY OF SHELL PETROLEUM DEVELOPMENT COMPANY)

ANALYSIS ON THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF OIL COMPANIES IN THE HOST COMMUNITIES IN THE NIGER DELTA REGION OF NIGERIA:

(A CASE STUDY OF SHELL PETROLEUM DEVELOPMENT COMPANY)


NUMBERS PAGES: 95         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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                                  ABSTRACT
This contains the impact of social responsibilities of Oil
Companies in the host communities of the Niger Delta region
of Nigeria: A case study of shell petroleum Development
Company. It is true that most corporate organizations
especially multinational companies are not living up to
expectation in solving the problems contributed in the region
by their activities. Their oil exploration had causes pollution
in the area, which has caused untold hardship to the people.
Thus, the objective of the study was to explore how best to use
the practice of public relations in solving these challenges.
Both primary and secondary data were collected. Instrument
used to collect primary data were personal interviews,
questionnaires and observation. Secondary data were collected
from textbooks, journals, magazines, newspaper and libraries.
Questionnaires administration and interview methods were
the principal methods used for collecting data. Descriptive
research methods and survey technique were adopted by the
researcher. The research findings of the project work reviewed
that social responsibilities programmes are necessary. The
findings also unyield that shell company earnies out its social
responsibility programmes in its host community. The
researcher recommended that the company should increase
and expand its social responsibility programmes and
government should help in the development of the
communities in which most multinational companies exist.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page – – – – i
Certification – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – iii
Acknowledgments – – – – iv
Abstract – – – – vi
Table of Contents – – – – vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background of the Study – – – – 1
1.2. Statement of the Problem – – – – 3
1.3. Objectives of the Study – – – – 3
1.4. Research Questions – – – – 4
1.5. Formulation of Hypothesis – – – – 5
1.6. Significance of the Study – – – – 6
1.7. Scope of the Study – – – – 6
1.8. Limitation of the Study – – – – 7
References – – – – 9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1.
Theoretical Framework – – – 10 2.2.
Historical Background – – – 14 2.3.
Current Literature on Theory Postulated – – 25
References – – – 40
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1. Research Design – – – 41
3.2. Sources of Data – – – 42
3.2.1. Primary Sources of Data – – – 42
3.2.2. Secondary Sources of Data – – – 43
3.3. Population of the Study – – – 44
3.4. Sample Size Determination and Sampling Technique 46
3.4.1. Sample Size Determination – – – 46
3.4.2. Sampling Technique – – – 48
3.5. Methods of Data Collection – – – 49
3.6. Method of Data Presentation and Analysis – – 49
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1. Presentation of Data – – – 50

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1. Summary of Findings – – – 70
5.2. Conclusion – – – 72
5.3. Recommendations – – – 73
BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX QUESTIONNAIRE

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ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENT AS A MANAGERIAL TOOL FOR DECISION MAKING (A CASE STUDY OF NWOKEJI URBAN PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURAL STUDIO [NUPAS]

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENT AS A MANAGERIAL TOOL FOR DECISION MAKING (A CASE STUDY OF NWOKEJI URBAN PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURAL STUDIO [NUPAS]


NUMBERS PAGES: 95         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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                                       Abstract
Financial Statement Analysis and Interpretation is a very vital
instrument of good management decision-making in business
enterprise. Good decisions ensure business survival, profitability and
growth. Without financial statement analysis in investment decisions,
an enterprise is likely to make decisions, which could spell its doom.
Poor or lack of qualitative financial statement analysis could lead to
investment returns, low profitability and even inability to identify viable
investment opportunities. The main objective of this project is
therefore, was to determine how firms could use financial statement
analysis and interpretation to aid management decisions and to avert
the problems highlighted above. Primary and secondary data are
employed to broaden the scope of this study. Primary data are
sourced from questionnaire responses. This provided data for the
validation of the hypotheses tested with the use of chi-square (X2).
The test revealed as follows: (1) Significant difference between the
returns of the financial statement in Analysis and Interpretation based
on management decision. (2) Organizational profitability has
relationship with financial statement analysis and interpretation based
management decision but not significantly. The project concludes
that companies should pay great attention to the use of financial
statement analysis so as to properly equip themselves with this
invaluable tool. The researcher recommends the following: (a)
Accountants or financial analysts should not be rushed in collection,
preparation, analysis and interpretation off financial statements. (b)
Financial statements should be made to reflect current cost
accounting to eliminate or reduce the effects to historical cost
principle and inflation risk element. (c) A combination of different
ratios should be used in analyzing a company’s financial and/or
operating performance. Proper use of financial statement analysis
should be made not only in investment but also in other areas of
decision making.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page - - - - - - - -- - i
Approval page - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - v
Table of content - - - - - - - - vi
Chapter One: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of Problem - - - - - - 4
1.3 Objectives of the Study- - - - - - 4
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - - 5
1.5 Hypotheses of the Study - - - - - 6
1.6 Significance of the Study - - - - - 6
1.7 Scope of the Study - - - - - - 7
1.8 Limitation of the Study - - - - - - 7
1.9 Definition of Terms - - - - - - 8
References - - - - - - - - 10

Chapter Two: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction - - - - - - 11
2.2 What is Financial Statement?- - - - 12
2.2.1 Objective of a Financial Statement Analysis - 13
2.3 Uses and Users of Financial Statement - - 14
2.4 Classification of Financial Statement - - 15
2.5 Relationship among the Statement of Financial
Position, Income Statement, Statement of cash
Flows and Statement of Retained Earnings - 18
2.6 Techniques and financial Statement Analysis and
Interpretation - - - - - - 19
2.6.1 Horizontal Analysis - - - - - 19
2.6.2 Trend Analysis - - - - - - 20
2.6.3 Vertical Analysis - - - - - - 24
2.6.4 Ratio Analysis - - - - - - 24
2.7 Definition of Ratio - - - - - 24
2.8 Types and Classification --- - - - 26
2.8.1Liquidity Ratios - - - - - - 27
2.8.2 Leverage Ratios - - - - - - 30
2.8.3 Activity Ratios - - - - - - 32
2.8.4 Profitability Ratios - - - - - 34
2.9 Nature of Accounting Ratios - -- - - 37
2.10 Uses of Ratio in Analyzing Financial Statement 39
2.11 Limitations of Financial Statement Analysis - 40
2.12 Use of Different Accounting Principles - - 40
2.13 Industry Affiliation - - - - - 41
2.14 Accounting Differences Between Countries - 42
2.15 The Impact of Inflation of Financial Statement
Analysis - - - - - - - - 42
2.16 Features of a Good Management Decision
Technique - - - - - - - 44
2.17 Environment of Management Decision Making - 45
References - - - - - -- - 47
Chapter Three
3.1 Research Design - - - - - - 4
3.2 Sources and Method of Data Collection --- - 48
3.3 Research Instrument - - - - - 49
3.4 Reliability/Validity of Research Instrument - 49
3.5 Population - - - - -- - - 50
3.6 Sample size and Technique - - - - 50
3.7 Administration of Research Instrument - - 53
3.8 Method of Data Analysis - - - - 53
3.9 Decision Criteria for Validation of Hypothesis - 56
References - - - - - - -- 57
Chapter Four: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS -58
4.1 Data Presentation - - - - - 60
4.2 Analysis of Question - - - - - 61
4.3 Test of Hypothesis - - - - - 71
Chapter Five: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Findings - - - - - 76
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - 77
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - 77
Bibliography - -- - - - - 79
Appendix - - -- - - - - - 80

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AN ANALYSIS OF CREDIT MANAGEMENT IN THE BANKING INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY FIRST BANK OF NIGERIA PLC. ENUGU.)

AN ANALYSIS OF CREDIT MANAGEMENT IN THE BANKING INDUSTRY
(A CASE STUDY FIRST BANK OF NIGERIA PLC. ENUGU.)


NUMBERS PAGES: 85         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500

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        ABSTRACT
Credit extension is an essential function of banks and bank management strive to satisfy the legitimate credit needs of the community it tends to serve. This study is aimed at analysing the credit management in the banking industry in Nigeria with particular reference to first Bank of Nigeria PLC. The importance of credit in the economic growth and development of a country cannot be overemphasized. Despite the important role played by credit in the economy, it is associated with a catalogue of risks. The Nigeria banking industry witnessed some failures prior to the consolidation era due to imprudent lending that finally led to bad debt and some ethical facts. The issue of non- performance of asset and declaring of ficticious project has become the order of the day in our banking system as a result of poor credit management leading to bank distress in the industry. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested through use of chi-square on questionnaires administered to various respondents. From the data collected and the tested hypothesis, results showed that: (i) Inadequate feasibility study affects loan repayment in the banking industry, (ii) The diversion of bank loan to unprofitable ventures affects loan repayment and (iii) The problem of poor attention given to distribution of loan has negative effect on banks performance. Amongst several recommendations were the following: (a) Banks should establish sound and competent credit management unit and recruit well motivated staffs (b) Banks should ensure that the chief executive avoid approval in principle in the credit management, and (c) Banks should have a monitoring and control unit or department to carry out a sort of post- modern exercise by way of controlling and monitoring credit facilities and also ensuring completeness of all conditions precedent to draw down.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Approval Page ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgement v
Abstract vi
Chapter One
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background Of The Study 1
1.2 Statement Of The Problem 2
1:3 Objectives Of The Study 3
1.4 Research Questions 3
1.5 Statement Of Hypotheses 4
16. Scope Of The Study 4
1.7 Significance Of The Study 5
1.8 Definition Of Terms 6
Chapter Two
Review Of Related Literature
2.0 Introduction 7
2.1 Theoretical Review 7
2.2 Emperical Reviews 51
CHAPTER THREE
Research Methodology 54
3.1 Introduction 54
3.2 Research Design 54
3.3 Sources And Techniques Of Data Collection 55
3.4 Descripti0n Of Population And Sample Procedure 55
3.5 Method Of Data Analysis 56
3:6 Determinations Of Critical Values 57
Chapter Four
Data Presentation, Analysis And Interpretation.
4.1 Introduction 60
4.2 Presentation Of Data 60
4.3 Analysis And Interpretation Of Data 60
Chapter Five
Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation
5.1) Introduction 64
5.2 Summary Of Findings 64
5.2 Conclusion 65
5.4 Recommendation 65
Questionnaire 72
Appendix 71

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A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF INVENTORY VALUATION METHODS ON FINANCIAL REPORT STATEMENT IN SOME MANUFACTURING COMPANIES IN ENUGU STATE

A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF INVENTORY VALUATION
METHODS ON FINANCIAL REPORT STATEMENT IN SOME MANUFACTURING
COMPANIES IN ENUGU STATE


NUMBERS PAGES -45         RESEARCH TYPE:- PROJECT         AMOUNT :- ₦2500


  ABSTRACT

This research work was conducted on with special reference to the impact inventory valuation method has on financial report statements of manufacturing companies. For a longtime now the Accounting profession has not been able to come up with any particular technique or method to be used uniformly in valuing inventory. This research work examined if the method used was as a result of the prevailing economic circumstances. A survey research design was adopted for the study; data collected were gotten from both the primary and secondary sources. An infinite population of over 3000 was used and a finite population of 220. Three hypotheses were tested at 5 percent level of significance. Tables and percentages were employed to answer the questionnaires while the statistical regression coefficient analysis and Z- test were used to test the hypotheses. It was found amongst others that the prevailing economic parameter influences the decision of choice of inventory valuation method used. The Accounting professional bodies should try as much as possible to adopt a particular method of inventory valuation and the weighted average method was recommended as a method that can withstand any economic challenges.

                                           

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE…………………………………………….…………………i
APPROVAL PAGE………………………………………………………..ii
DEDICATION…………………………………………………..…………iii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS…………………………………………….……iv
ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………v
TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………..vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY………………………………………1
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM……………………………..…4
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY…………………………………………..5
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS………………………………………….5
1.5 HYPOTHESES………………………………………………………6
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY…………………………………7
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY…………………………………………….8
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY……………………………………………..9
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS……………………………………..…..10
CHAPTER TWO:LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 HISTORY PERSPECTIVE………………………………..………..13
2.2 THE PROBLEM OF INVENTORY MANAGEMENT………..…..14
2.3 INVENTORY VALUATION………………………………………..16
2.4 INVENTORY VALUATION METHODS…………………….……20
REFERENCE……………………………………………………………………..37

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 INTRODUCTION.……………………………………….……………39
3.3 AREA OF THE STUDY……………………………….………………40
3.4 POULATION OF THE STUDY………………………………………41
3.5 SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLINGTECHNIQUES……………….…41
3.6INSTRUMENT OF DATA COLLECTION……………………….…44
3.7 VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT …….………………………….45
3.8 RELIABILITY OF INSTRUMENT …………………………………..45
3.9 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION………………………………..46
3.10 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS……………………………………46
CHAPTER FOUR:DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 DATA ANALYSIS………………………………..……………………..49
4.2 TESTING OF HYPOTHESES ……………………….…………………66
CHAPTER FIVE:SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS…………………………………………..82
5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS……………………………………………….84
5.3 CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………..86
BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………………88
APPENDIX A……………………………………………………………90
APPENDIX B…………………………………………………………….9